Summary of a Workshop Panel on Distributed Geolibraries
Mapping Science Committee
Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources
National Research Council
National Academy Press
Return to TOC and Chapters 1-6
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Prudence S. Adler, Association of Research Libraries
Timothy Alexander, consultant
William Arms, Corporation for National Research Initiatives
Jim Barrett, SpaceImaging, Corp.
Gerald Barton, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Francis Bretherton, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin
Don Buhler, Bureau of Land Management
Barbara Buttenfield, Department of Geography, University of. Colorado
Nicholas Chrisman, Department of Geography, University of Washington
David J. Coleman, Geodesy & Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick
Don Cooke, Geographic Data Technology, Inc.
Frederic W. Corle II, Potomac Research Group
Max J. Egenhofer, Spatial Information Science and Engineering University of Maine
John D. Evans, Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Christos Faloutsos, Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University
Gary L. Fitzpatrick, Library of Congress
Michael J. Folk, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois
Kenneth E. Foote, Department of Geography, University of Texas
Alan Gaines, Earth Science Division, National Science Foundation
Kenn Gardels, REGIS, University of California, Berkeley
Henry L. Garie, Department of Environmental Protection, State of New Jersey
Barry Glick, GeoSystems Global Corporation (MapQuest)
Mike Goodchild, NCGIA, University of California, Santa Barbara
Steve Griffin, Digital Libraries Initiative, National Science Foundation
Jane Griffith, NRC Computer Science and Technology Board
Wayne Hallada, Defense Intelligence Agency
Linda Hill, Alexandria Digital Library, University of California, Santa Barbara
Thomas Holm, EROS Data Center, USGS
Sally Howe, National Coordination Office for Computing, Information, and Communications
Robert Kahn, Corporation for National Research Initiatives
Thomas A. Kalil, National Economic Council, Executive Office of the President
Karen Kemp, NCGIA, University of California, Santa Barbara
Annette J. Krygiel, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University
Nand Lal, Digital Libraries Initiative, NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center
Nina S-N. Lam, Department of Geography, Louisiana State University
Roberta Lenczowski, Directorate for Operations, National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Michael E. Lesk, Computer Information Sciences and Engineering, NSF
Clifford A. Lynch, Coalition for Networked Information
David Mark, Department of Geography, SUNY Buffalo
Patrick McGlamery, Map Librarian, University of Connecticut
Eric Miller, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
John Moeller, Federal Geographic Data Committee, USGS
Joel Morrison, Geography Division, Bureau of the Census
Doug Nebert, Federal Geographic Data Committee, USGS
Robert Neches, Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California
Harlan J. Onsrud, Spatial Information Science and Engineering University of Maine
Hedy Rossmeissl, National Mapping Division, U.S. Geological Survey
Walt Senus, Chief Scientist, National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Ben A. Shneiderman, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland
Karen C. Siderelis, State of North Carolina
Terence Smith, Alexandria Digital Library, University of California, Santa Barbara
Gale TeSelle, Information Technology Division, Natural Resources Conservation Service
Rex W. Tracy, GDE, Inc.
Robert Tufts, TASC
A. Keith Turner, Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines
Tom Usselman, NRC Mapping Science Committee
Ferris Webster, ICSU Panel on World Data Centers, University of Delaware
Frederick Weingarten, Computing Research Association
James Williams II, Dean of Libraries, University of Colorado
Maria Zemankova, Division of Information and Intelligent Systems, NSF
Jennifer Estep, Administrative Assistant, Mapping Science Committee
Molly Vogt, Workshop Assistant, National Geographic Society
Contributed White Papers
The following white papers were prepared and distributed to the workshop participants as provocative authored articles; they were designed to stimulate thought and were not peer reviewed. Authors did not have the opportunity to make revisions after the workshop. This web site will be maintained at least through the end of 2000.
What is a Geolibrary? Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara
What is a Geolibrary? Clifford A. Kottman, Open GIS Consortium
Making the Case for Distributed GeoLibraries Barbara P. Buttenfield, University of Colorado-Boulder
Confidence in Distributed Digital Geolibraries Roberta E. Lenczowski, National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Data Quality in Distributed GeoLibraries Rex W. Tracy, GDE Systems, Inc.
National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive: "A National Asset" Thomas M. Holm, USGS EROS Data Center
Possible Research Topics Related to Geolibraries Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara
Distributed Geolibraries: Challenges and Opportunities from A Computing and Scientific Data Management Perspective Mike Folk, NCSA/University of Illinois
Geolibrary and Statewide Electronic Atlas Nina Lam, Louisiana State University
Putting The User First: Implications For The Geolibrary A. Keith Turner, Colorado School of Mines
Geolibraries Walt Senus, National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Producer Rights and Public Rights in Spatial Data Sets in Geolibraries Harlan J. Onsrud, University of Maine
Distributed Geolibraries Patrick McGlamery, University of Connecticut
Geolibrary Access of Historical Climate Data Publications in the NOAA Library Gerald S. Barton, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Geolibraries: Integration into to the Life Cycle of Information Creation and Use Linda L. Hill, Alexandria Digital Library Project, University of California, Santa Barbara
The Geodata Network Kenn Gardels, University of California, Berkeley
What is a Geolibrary Christos Faloutsos, Carnegie Mellon University
The workshop is intended to address the following:
|Monday, June 15, 1998|
|8:00||Registration, Coffee, Continental Breakfast|
|8:30||INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Mike Goodchild, Workshop Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara|
|9:00||FRAME OF REFERENCE-Digital
Libraries, Internet, Information Sciences
Each group will discuss the following questions:
1. What is a suitable vision for geospatial data dissemination and access in 2010 (code named geolibraries)?
2. Policy and institutional issues
Rapporteurs will present results of each breakout group.
|5:30||RECEPTION; Followed by Dinner at 6:30|
|Tuesday, June 16, 1998|
|8:00||Coffee, Continental Breakfast|
AND TECHNICAL ISSUES
Each group will discuss the following questions:
3. Ongoing Activities
4. Technical Issues and R&D Needs
Detailed in this section is a sample of World Wide Web sites chosen to illustrate existing elements of the distributed geolibrary vision. Each is largely isolated from one another and falls short of the full vision. Taken together, the set illustrates both what is already possible and how far we still are from a distributed geolibrary.
Terraserver offers digital imagery from the Russian SPIN-2 satellites and digital orthorectified photographs (orthophotos) from the U.S. Geological Survey. The archive contains over 1 terabyte of information and can be queried by pointing, zooming, and panning on a basemap or by specifying place-names. No services are provided for finding or integrating other data based on place.
The MapQuest site offers a range of services based on its database The map illustrates the ability to provide services based on specific collections, in addition to serving unmodified information.
Environmental Protection Agency ZIP Code Search
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) web site offers several forms of place-based search through the agency's archives, including Maps On Demand and ZIP code search. From the web site: The EPA Envirofacts Warehouse is a database that includes information on Superfund sites, drinking water, air pollution, toxic releases, hazardous waste, and water discharge permits. Through Envirofacts, you can get lists of which facilities in your neighborhood are releasing pollutants or are legally handling hazardous materials, where any Superfund sites are located and what their cleanup status is, and more. In many cases, you can link to more information about the chemicals involved at the listed sites, and find out whether they are potentially harmful.
Through Envirofacts' EnviroMapper feature, you can cus-tomize a computer-generated map of your neighborhood to view the location of EPA regulated sites, schools, churches, streams, streets, and other geographic features.
U.S. Bureau of the Census TIGER Map Server
The Bureau of the Census web site supports place-based search for census data. The main purpose of the TIGER Map Service project is to provide a good-quality, national scale, street-level map to users of the World Wide Web. This service is freely accessible to the public, and based on an open architecture that allows other Web developers and publishers to use public domain maps generated by this service in their own applications and documents. We planned to provide high-quality street maps, with simple GIS capabilities such as point display and statistical choropleth mapping.
U.S. Geological Survey National Atlas
The National Atlas web site creates and delivers maps on demand from the National Atlas database.
MIT's Digital Orthophoto Server
This Massachusetts Institute of Technology web site serves digital orthophotos (DOQs) for the area around Boston. By clicking on a tile it is possible to retrieve the associated data at a user-defined level of resolution.
Alexandria Digital Library
The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) is the product of a research project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, funded through the Digital Library Initiative of the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The first screen in ADL's process of defining a place-based search. Additional properties can be specified to narrow the search, which is then applied to the order 106 data sets in the current ADL collection.
This Microsoft web site is designed to help people searching for homes. It includes the ability to access demographic and other information about neighborhoods (see Chapter 1), search listings, and estimate payments.
Michael F. Goodchild (Chair) is professor and chair of the Department of Geography at the University of California, Santa Barbara; director of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis; and associate director of the Alexandria Digital Library. He received his B.A. in physics from Cambridge University and Ph.D. in geography from McMaster University. Dr. Goodchild taught at the University of Western Ontario for 19 years before moving to his present position in 1988. His research interests focus on the generic issues of geographic information, including accuracy and the modeling of uncertainty, design of spatial decision support systems, development of methods of spatial analysis, and data structures for global geographic information systems. His publications include the two volume text entitled Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applica-tions and Management (1999, Wiley). He is also chair of the Mapping Science Committee.
Prudence S. Adler is assistant executive director of the Association of Research Libraries (Washington, D.C.), where she is primarily responsible for federal relations and information policy activities. Much of her recent emphasis has been on intellectual property rights in an electronic environment.
Barbara P. Buttenfield is associate professor of geography at the University of Colorado in Boulder. She holds a Ph.D. in geography from the University of Washington. She has served on the faculty at the State University of New York, Buffalo; the University of California, Santa Barbara; and the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Buttenfield's research interests focus on cartographic knowledge construction, spatial data delivery on the Internet, and visualization tools for geographic modeling. A current project to evaluate user interface tools for the Alexandria Digital Library is funded jointly by NSF, ARPA, and NASA. She is past President of the American Cartographic Association, and serves on the editorial boards of Computers Environment and Urban Systems, Transactions on GIS, and Cartographic Perspectives. She is also a member of the Mapping Science Committee.
Robert E. Kahn is chairman, CEO, and president of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), which he founded in 1986 after a 13 years at the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). CNRI provides leadership and funding for research and development of the National Information Infrastructure. Dr. Kahn earned a Ph.D. degree from Princeton in 1964. He worked at Bell Laboratories and as an assistant professor of electrical engineering at MIT. He took a leave of absence from MIT to join Bolt Beranek and Newman, where he was responsible for the system design of the Arpanet. In 1972 he moved to DARPA and subsequently became director of DARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). While director of IPTO he initiated the United States government's billion-dollar Strategic Computing Program, the largest computer research and development program ever undertaken. Dr. Kahn conceived the idea of open-architecture networking. He is a coinventor of the TCP/IP protocols and was responsible for originating DARPA's Internet program. Dr. Kahn also coined the term national information infrastructure (NII) in the mid-1980s, which later became more widely known as the information superhighway. His recent work has been developing the concept of a digital object infrastructure to provide a framework for interoperability of heterogeneous information systems, partic-ularly as applied to digital libraries. Dr. Kahn is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a 1997 recipient of the National Medal of Technology.
Annette J. Krygiel is with the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, Ft. Lesley J. McNair, in Washington, D.C. Dr. Krygiel has a B.S. in mathematics from St. Louis University, and a M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from Washington University, St. Louis. In her doctoral research she developed modeling techniques for parallel computing architectures. She began her government career in 1963, serving with the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) until July 1994. While at DMA her areas of endeavor included software development, software engineering, management of research initiatives in computer science and telecommunications, and program management of large-scale systems. Dr. Krygiel rejoined DMA's special program office to manage the program integration, test and delivery phases of DMA's Digital Production System, one of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DOD) largest software developments. Subsequently, Dr. Krygiel served as DMA's chief scientist until her formal appointment by the Secretary of Defense as the Director of the Central Imagery Office (CIO), a DOD combat support agency. She remained as Director for twenty-seven months until that agency merged into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in October 1996. She was awarded the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal while CIO Director. Dr. Krygiel was subsequently appointed to the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University, where she is investigating the problem of large-scale system integration.
Harlan J. Onsrud is associate professor in the Department of Spatial Information Science and Engineering at the University of Maine and chair of the Scientific Policy Committee of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in Civil Engineering from the University of Wisconsin and a Juris Doctorate from the University of Wisconsin Law School. His research focuses on (1) analysis of legal and institutional issues affecting the creation and use of digital databases and the sharing of geographic information, (2) assessing utilization of GIS and the social impacts of the technology, and (3) developing and assessing strategies for supporting the diffusion of geographic information innovations. He is also a member of the Mapping Science Committee.
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