20 November 2001

Field Manual
No. 3-25.26
Department of the Army
Washington, DC , 20 July 2001

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Table of Contents
Chapters 1 - 6

Chapters 7 - 10

Chapters 11 - 14







A sketch is a free-hand drawing of a map or picture of an area or route of travel. It shows enough detail and has enough accuracy to satisfy special tactical or administrative requirements.


Sketches are useful when maps are not available or the existing maps are not adequate, or to illustrate a reconnaissance or patrol report. Sketches may vary from hasty to complete and detailed, depending upon their purpose and the degree of accuracy required. For example, a sketch of a large minefield will require more accuracy than a hasty sketch of a small unit's defensive position.


The scale of a sketch is determined by the object in view and the amount of detail required to be shown. The sketch of a defensive position for a platoon or company normally calls for a sketch of larger scale than a sketch for the same purpose for a division. Military sketches also include road and area sketches.

a.   Field Sketches. A field sketch (Figure A-1) must show the north arrow, scale, legend, and the following features:

  • Power lines.

  • Rivers.

  • Main roads.

  • Towns and villages.

  • Forests.

  • Rail lines.

  • Major terrain features.

    Figure A-1. Sketch map.

    b.   Road Sketches. These sketches show the natural and military features on and in the immediate vicinity of the road. In general, the width of terrain sketches will not exceed 365 meters on each side of the road. Road sketches may be used to illustrate a road when the existing map does not show sufficient detail.

    c.   Area Sketches. These sketches include those of positions, OPs, or particular places.

    (1)   Position Sketch. A position sketch is one of a military position, campsite, or other area of ground. To effectively complete a position sketch, the sketcher must have access to all parts of the area being sketched.

    (2)   Observation Post Sketch. An OP sketch shows the military features of ground along a friendly OP line as far toward the enemy position as possible.

    (3)   Place Sketch. A place sketch is one of an area made by a sketcher from a single point of observation. Such a sketch may cover ground in front of an OP line, or it may serve to extend a position or road sketch toward the enemy.




    One of the first considerations in the care of maps is its proper folding.


    Figures B-1 and B-2 show ways of folding maps to make them small enough to be carried easily and still be available for use without having to unfold them entirely.

    Figure B-1. Two methods of folding a map.


    After a map has been folded, it should be pasted in a folder for protection. Apply adhesive to the back of the segments corresponding to A, F, L, and Q (Figure B-2).

    Figure B-2. How to slit and fold a map for special use.


    It is suggested that before attempting to cut and fold a map in the manner illustrated in Figure B-2, make a practice cut and fold with a piece of paper.




    This appendix provides conversion tables for units of measure and conversion factors that are used in military operations.

    12 inches

    36 inches

    3 feet

    1,760 yards

    2,026.8 yards

    5,280 feet

    6,080.4 feet

    63,360 inches

    72,963 inches










    1 foot

    1 yard

    1 yard

    1 mile statute

    1 mile nautical

    1 mile statute

    1 mile nautical

    1 mile statute

    1 mile nautical

    Table C-1. English system of linear measure.


    1 millimeter

    10 millimeters

    10 centimeters

    10 decimeters

    10 meters

    10 decameters

    10 hectometers

    10 kilometers
















    1.0 myriameter









    0.0393 inches

    0.3937 inches

    3.937 inches

    39.37 inches

    32.81 feet

    328.1 feet

    0.62 mile

    6.21 miles

    Table C-2. Metric system of linear measure.


    1 mil

    1 grad

    1 degree




    1/6400 circle

    1/400 circle

    1/360 circle





    16.0 mils

    about 17.8 mils




    0.0625 grad

    0°54' = 0.9°

    about 1.1 grad

    Table C-3. Equivalent units of angular measure.



    Inch 1 0.0833 0.0277 - - 25.40
    Foot 12 1 0.333 - - 304.8
    Yard 36 3 1 0.00056 - 914.4
    Statute Mile 63,360 5,280 1,760 1 0.8684 -
    Nautical Mile 72,963 6,080 2,026 1.1516 1 -
    Millimeter 0.0394 0.0033 0.0011 - - 1
    Centimeter 0.3937 0.0328 0.0109 - - 10
    Decimeter 3.937



    - - 100
    Meter 39.37 3.2808 1.0936 0.0006 0.0005 1,000
    Decameter 393.7 32.81 10.94 0.0062 0.0054 10,000
    Hectometer 3,937 328.1 109.4 0.0621 0.0539 100,000
    Kilometer 39,370 3,281 1,094 0.6214 0.5396 1,000,000
    Myriameter 393,700 32,808 10,936 6.2137 5.3959 10,000,000


    ONE cm dm M dkm




    Inch 2.540 0.2540 0.0254 0.0025 0.0003 - -
    Foot 30.48 3.048 0.3048 0.0305 0.0030 0.0003 -
    Yard 91.44 9.144 0.9144 0.0914 0.0091 0.0009 -
    Statute Mile 160,930 16,093 1,609 160.9 16.09 1.6093 0.1609

    Nautical Mile 185,325 18,532 1,853 185.3 18.53 1.8532 0.1853

    Millimeter 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 - - -
    Centimeter 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 - -
    Decimeter 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 -
    Meter 100 1 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001

    Decameter 1,000 10 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001

    Hectometer 10,000 100 100 10 1 0.1 0.01

    Kilometer 100,000 1,000 1,000 100 10 1 0.1

    Myriameter 1,000,000 10,000 10,000 1000 100 10 1

    Table C-4. Conversion factors.

    Example I

    Problem: Reduce 76 centimeters to (?) inches.
    76 cm x 0.3937 = 29 inches
    Answer: There are 29 inches in 76 centimeters.

    Example II

    Problem: How many feet are there in 2.74 meters?
    2.74 = 9 feet
    Answer: There are approximately 9 feet in 2.74 meters.


    1:5,000 416.67 feet
    127.00 meters
    164.00 feet
    50.00 meters

    833.33 feet
    254.00 meters
    328.10 feet
    100.00 meters
    1:12,500 1,041.66 feet
    317.00 meters
    410.10 feet
    125.00 meters
    1:20,000 1,666.70 feet
    508.00 meters
    656.20 feet
    200.00 meters
    1:25,000 2,083.30 feet
    635.00 meters
    820.20 feet
    250.00 meters
    1:50,000 4,166.70 feet
    1,270.00 meters
    1,640.40 feet
    500.00 meters
    1:63,360 5,280.00 feet
    1,609.30 meters
    2,078.70 feet
    633.60 meters
    1:100,000 8,333.30 feet
    2,540.00 meters
    3,280.80 feet
    1,000.00 meters
    1:250,000 20,833.00 feet
    6,350.00 meters
    8,202.00 feet
    2,500.00 meters
    1:500,000 41,667.00 feet
    12,700.00 meters
    16,404.00 feet
    5,000.00 meters

    Table C-5. Ground distance at map scale.




    Joint operations graphics (paragraph 2-6b[4]) are based on the format of the standard 1:250,000-scale military topographic maps. They contain additional information needed in present-day joint air-ground operations.

    D-1. TYPES

    Each JOG is prepared in two types; one is designed for air operations and the other for ground operations. Each version is identified in the lower margin as JOINT OPERATIONS GRAPHIC (AIR) or JOINT OPERATIONS GRAPHIC (GROUND).


    The basic topographic information is the same on both JOG versions.

    a.   Power transmission lines are symbolized as a series of purple pylons connected by a solid purple line.

    b.   Airports, landing facilities, and related air information are shown in purple. The purple symbols that may be unfamiliar to the user are shown in the legend in the margin.

    c.   The top of each obstruction to air navigation is identified by its elevation above sea level and its elevation above ground level.

    d.   Along the north and east edges of the graphic, detail is extended beyond the standard sheet lines to create an overlap with the graphics to the north and to the east.

    e.   Layer tinting (paragraph 10-2a) and relief shading (paragraph 10-2c) are added as an aid to interpreting the relief.

    f.   The incidence of the graphic in the world geographic reference system (paragraph 4-8b) is shown by a diagram in the margin.


    The JOG (AIR) series, prepared for air use, contains detailed information on air facilities such as radio ranges, runway lengths, and landing surfaces. The highest terrain elevation in each 15-minute quadrangle is identified by the large open-faced figures shown in the legend. Elevations and contours on JOG (AIR) sheets are given in feet.


    The JOG (GROUND) series is prepared for use by ground units, and only stable or permanent air facilities are identified. Elevations and contours are located in the same positions as on the air version, but are given in meters.




    This appendix provides information on the exportable training material available for unit training in basic land navigation skills. These materials are available from the Army Research Institute, Fort Benning Field Unit, Fort Benning, Georgia 3l905.


    This training material describes the planning process in detail. Planning may be the most important aspect of land navigation. Planning to navigate includes background information for map interpretation, a practical example in planning to navigate, and a description of how to train these skills.


    This training material offers guidance for unit training in basic land navigation skills. It includes training modules for distance and location skills. Each module is self-contained, so training can be given in each skill separately from other skills.


    This training material describes the process of navigating with an emphasis on movement skills and the techniques and strategies that should be used while navigating. Critical training covers how to put skills together for movement and how to decide which technique to use in a certain situation.


    The MITAC program is designed to teach terrain association through a "building block" approach starting with simple elements first, then adding more complex information as the soldier progresses from one level to another. The MITAC consists of three systematic courses of instruction: basic, intermediate, and advanced.


    The route planning guide provides the small-unit leader with a comprehensive reference document, which he can use in learning to plan dismounted administrative or tactical moves. It offers him a planning procedure that he can use in the field without any notes to plan successful moves over unfamiliar terrain.


    The land navigation sustainment program is designed to develop trainers that are capable of providing soldiers with the confidence and skills necessary to accomplish all assigned land navigation tasks and therefore to develop soldiers capable of accomplishing these tasks.




    What is orienteering? Orienteering is a competitive form of land navigation. It is for all ages and degrees of fitness and skill. It provides the suspense and excitement of a treasure hunt. The object of orienteering is to locate control points by using a map and compass to navigate through the woods. The courses may be as long as 10 km.

    F-1. HISTORY

    Orienteering began in Scandinavia in the nineteenth century. It was primarily a military event and was part of military training. It was not until 1919 that the modern version of orienteering was born in Sweden as a competitive sport. Ernst Killander, its creator, can be rightfully called the father of orienteering. In the early thirties, the sport received a technical boost with the invention of a new compass, more precise and faster to use. The Kjellstrom brothers, Bjorn and Alvan, and their friend, Brunnar Tillander, were responsible for this new compass. They were among the best Swedish orienteers of the thirties, with several individual championships among them. Orienteering was brought into the US in 1946 by Bjorn Kjellstrom.


    Each orienteer is given a 1:50,000 topographic map with the various control points circled. Each point has a flag marker and a distinctive punch that is used to mark the scorecard. Competitive orienteering involves running from checkpoint to checkpoint. It is more demanding than road running, not only because of the terrain, but because the orienteer must constantly concentrate, make decisions, and keep track of the distance covered. Orienteering challenges both the mind and the body; however, the competitor's ability to think under pressure and make wise decisions is more important than speed or endurance.


    The orienteering area should be on terrain that is heavily wooded, preferably uninhabited, and difficult enough to suit different levels of competition. The area must be accessible to competitors and its use must be coordinated with appropriate terrain and range control offices.

    a.   The ideal map for an orienteering course is a multi-colored, accurate, large-scale topographic map. A topographic map is a graphic representation of selected man made and natural features of a part of the earth's surface plotted to a definite scale. The distinguishing characteristic of a topographic map is the portrayal of the shape and elevation of the terrain by contour lines.

    b.   For orienteering within the United States, large-scale topographic (topo) maps are available from the Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Topographic Center. The scale suitable for orienteering is 1:50,000 (DMA).


    The challenge for the course setter is to keep the course interesting, but never beyond the individual's or group's ability. General guidance is to select locations that are easily identifiable on the map and terrain, and accessible from several routes.

    a.   Those who set up the initial event should study a map for likely locations of control points and verification of the locations. Better yet, they should coordinate with an experienced competitor in selecting the course.

    b.   There are several forms of orienteering events. Some of the most common are route, line, cross-country, and score orienteering.

    (1)   Route Orienteering. This form can be used during the training phase and in advanced orienteering. In this type of event, a master or advanced competitor leads the group as they walk a route. The beginners trace the actual route walked on the ground on their maps. They circle the location of the different control points found along the walked route. When they finish, the maps are analyzed and compared. During training, time is not a factor. Another variation is when a course is laid out on the ground with markers for the competitor to follow. There is no master map, as the course is traced for the competitor by flags or markers. The winner of the event is the competitor who has successfully traced the route and accurately plotted the most control points on his map.

    (2)   Line Orienteering. At least five control points are used during this form of orienteering training. The competitor traces on his map a preselected route from a master map. The object is to walk the route shown on the map, circling the control points on the map as they are located on the ground (Figure F-1).

    Figure F-1. Line orienteering.

    (3)   Cross-Country Orienteering. This is the most common type of orienteering competitions. It is sometimes called free or point orienteering and is considered to be the most competitive and intriguing of all events (Figure F-2). In this event, all competitors must visit the same controls in the same order. With the normal one-minute starting interval, it becomes a contest of route choice and physical skill. The winner is the contestant with the fastest time around the course.

    Figure F-2. A cross-country orienteering map.

    (a)   After selecting the control points for the course, determine the start and finish locations. The last control should be near the finish. In describing each control's location, an eight-digit grid coordinate and a combination of two letters identifying the point (control code) should be included in each descriptive clue list that is normally given to each competitor at least two minutes before his start time.

    (b)   There are usually 6 to 12 control markers on the course in varying degrees of difficulty and distances apart so that there are no easy, direct routes. Instead, each competitor is faced with many choices of direct but difficult routes, or of indirect but easier routes. Each control's location is circled, and the order in which each is to be visited is clearly marked on the master map. The course may be a closed transverse with start and finish collocated, or the start and finish may be at different locations. The length of the course and difficulty of control placement varies with the competitors' degree of expertise. Regardless of the class of event, all competitors must indicate on their event cards proof of visiting the control markers. Inked stamps, coded letters, or punches are usually used to do this procedure.

    NOTE: The same orienteering range may serve in both cross-country and score events. However, a separate set of competitor maps, master maps, and event cards are necessary.

    (4)   Score orienteering. In this event, the area chosen for the competition is blanketed with many control points (Figure F-3). The controls near the start/finish point (usually identical in this event) have a low point value, while those more distant or more difficult to locate have a high point value. (See Figure F-6 for a sample card.) This event requires the competitor to locate as many control markers as he can within the specified time (usually 90 minutes). Points are awarded for each control visited and deducted for exceeding the specified time. The competitor with the highest point score is the winner.

    Figure F-3. A score orienteering map.

    (a)   Conducting a score event at the start is basically the same as the cross-country event. The competitor is given a map and an event card. The event card lists all the controls with their different point values. When released to the master map, the competitor finds the circles and numbers indicating the location of all the controls listed on his event card. He copies all the red circles on his map. Then he chooses any route he wishes to take in amassing the highest possible point score in the time available. The course is designed to ensure that there are more control points than can possibly be visited in the allotted time. Again, each control marker visited must be indicated on the event card.

    (b)   It is important for the competitor to take time initially to plot the most productive route. A good competitor may spend up to 6 minutes in the master map area while plotting the ideal route.

    (c)   There is no reward for returning early with time still available to find more points, so the good competitor must be able to coordinate time and distance with his ability in land navigation in running the course.


    The same officials can be used at the start and finish. More officials or assistants can be used; the following material lists the minimum that can be used for a competition. They include the following:

    a.   At The Start.

    (1)   Course Organizer Briefs the orienteers in the assembly area, issues event cards and maps, and calls orienteers forward to start individually.

    (2)   Recorder Records orienteer's name and start time on recorder's sheet, checks orienteer's name and start number on his event card, and issues any last-minute instructions.

    (3)   Timer Controls the master clock and releases the orienteers across the start line at their start time (usually at one-minute intervals) to the master map area.

    b.   At The Finish.

    (1)   Timer Records finish time of each orienteer on the orienteer's event card and passes card to recorder.

    (2)   Recorder Records finish time of each orienteer on the orienteer's event card and passes card to recorder.

    (3)   Course Organizer Verifies correctness of names, finish times, and final score; posts orienteers' positions on results board; and accounts for all orienteers at the end of event.


    The layout of the start/finish areas for orienteering events is basically the same for all forms.

    a.   Assembly Area. This is where orienteers register and receive instructions, maps, event cards, and start numbers. They may also change into their orienteering clothes if facilities are available, study their maps, and fill out their event cards here. Sanitation facilities should be available in this area.

    b.   Start. At the start, the orienteer reports to the recorder and timer's table to be logged in by the recorder and released by the timer.

    c.   Master Map Area. There are three to five master maps 20 to 50 meters from the start. When the orienteer arrives at this area, he must mark his map with all the course's control points. Having done this, he must decide on the route that he is to follow. The good orienteer takes the time to orient his map and carefully plot his route before rushing off. It is a good idea to locate the master map area out of sight of the start point to preclude orienteers tracking one another.

    d.   Equipment. The following is a list of equipment needed by the host of an orienteering event:

  • Master maps, three to five, mounted.

  • Competitor maps, one each.

  • Event cards, one each.

  • Recorder's sheets, two.

  • Descriptive clue cards, one each.

  • Time clocks, two.

  • Rope, 100 to 150 feet, with pegs for finish tunnel.

  • Card tables, one or two.

  • Folding chairs, two or three.

  • Results board.

  • Control markers, one per point.

  • Extra compasses.

  • Whistle, for starting.

  • First aid kit.

  • Colored tape or ribbon for marking route to master map and from last control point to finish.

    e.   Control Markers. These are orange-and-white markers designating each control point (Figure F-4). Ideally, they should have three vertical square faces, forming a triangle with the top and bottom edges. Each face should be 12 inches on a side and divided diagonally into red and white halves or cylinders (of similar size) with a large, white, diagonal stripe dividing the red cylinder. For economy or expediency, 1-gallon milk cartons, 5-gallon ice cream tubs, 1-gallon plastic bleach bottles, or foot-square plaques, painted in the diagonal or divided red and white colors of orienteering, may be used.

    Figure F-4. Control markers.

    (1)   Each marker should have a marking or identification device for the orienteer to use to indicate his visit to the control. This marker may be the European-style punch pliers, a self-inking marker, different colored crayons at each point, different letter combinations, different number combinations, or different stamps or coupons. The marking device must be unique, simple, and readily transcribable to the orienteers' event cards.

    (2)   The control marker should normally be visible from at least 10 meters. It should not be hidden.

    f.   Recorder's Sheets. A suggested format for the recorder's sheet is depicted in Figure F-5.

    Figure F-5. Recorder's sheet.

    g.   Event Card. The event card can be made before the event and should be as small as possible, as it is carried by the competitor. It must contain the following items: name, start number, start time, finish time, total time, place, and enough blocks for marking the control points. As indicated earlier, it may also contain a listing of descriptive clues (Figure F-6).

    Figure F-6. Cross-country orienteering event card.

    h.   Results Board. This board displays the orienteer's position in the event at the finish (Figure F-7). There are a variety of ways of displaying the results, from blackboard to ladder-like to a clothesline-type device where each orienteer's name, point score, and times are listed.

    Figure F-7. Results board.

    i.   Clue Description Card. These cards are prepared with the master maps after the course is set. They contain the descriptive clues for each control point, control code, grid coordinate references, returning time for competitors, removal times for each location, and panic azimuth (Figure F-8). The terminology on these must be identical to that listed in the definition section. These cards and the master maps must be kept confidential until the orienteers start the event.

    Figure F-8. Clue description card.

    j.   Scoring. The cross-country or free event is scored by the orienteer's time alone. All control points must be visited; failure to visit one results in disqualification. In this event, the fastest time wins.

    (1)   A variation that can be introduced for novices is to have a not-later-than return time at the finish and add minutes to the orienteer's final time for minutes late and control points not located.

    (2)   The score event requires the amassing of as many points as possible within the time limit. Points are deducted for extra time spent on the course, usually one point for each 10 seconds extra.

    k.   Prizes. A monetary prize is not awarded. A suggested prize for beginners is an orienteering compass or some other practical outdoor-sports item.


    A first aid kit must be available at the start and finish. One of the officials should be trained in first aid or have a medic at the event. Other safety measures include:

    a.   Control Points. Locate the controls where the safety of the competitor is not jeopardized by hazardous terrain or other circumstances.

    b.   Safety Lane. Have a location, usually linear, on the course where the competitor may go if injured, fatigued, or lost. A good course will usually have its boundary as a safety lane. Then a competitor can set a panic azimuth on the compass and follow it until he reaches the boundary.

    c.   Finish Time. All orienteering events must have a final return time. At this time, all competitors must report to the finish line even if they have not completed the course.

    d.   Search-and-Rescue Procedures. If all competitors have not returned by the end of the competition, the officials should drive along the boundaries of the course to pick up the missing orienteers.


    When the control point is marked on the map as well as on the ground, the description of that point is prefaced by the definite article the; for example, the pond. When the control point is marked on the ground but is not shown on the map, then the description of the point is prefaced by the indefinite article a; for example, a trail junction. In this case, care must be taken to ensure that no similar control exists within at least 25 meters. If it does, then either the control must not be used or it must be specified by a directional note in parentheses; for example, a depression (northern). Other guidelines include:

    a.   Points of the compass are denoted by capital letters; for example, S, E, SE.

    b.   Control points within 100 meters of each other or different courses are not to be on the same features or on features of the same description or similar character.

    c.   For large (up to 75 meters across) features or features that are not possible to see across, the position of the control marker on the control point should be given in the instructions. For example, the east side of the pond; the north side of the building.

    d.   If a very large (100 to 200 meters) feature is used, the control marker should be visible from most directions from at least 25 meters.

    e.   If a control point is near but not on a conspicuous feature, this fact and the location of the marker should be clearly given; for example, 10 meters E of the junction. Avoid this kind of control point.

    f.   Use trees in control descriptions only if they are prominent and a totally different species from those surrounding. Never use bushes and fauna as control points.

    g.   Number control points in red on the master map.

    h.   For cross-country events, join all control points by a red line indicating the course's shape.


    The map symbols in Figure F-9 are typical topographic and cultural symbols that can be selected for orienteering control points. The map cutouts have been selected from DMA maps.

    Figure F-9. Map symbols.

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).

    Figure F-9. Map symbols (continued).


    The orienteer should try not to use the compass to orient the map. The terrain association technique is recommended instead. The orienteer should learn the following techniques:

    a.   Pacing. One of the basic skills that the orienteer should develop early is how to keep track of distance traveled while walking and running. This is done on a 100-meter pace course.

    b.   Thumbing. This technique is very simple, but the map has to be folded small to use it. The orienteer finds his location on the map and places his thumb directly next to it. He moves from point to point on the ground without moving his thumb from his initial location. To find the new location, the only thing that he has to do is look at the map and use his thumb as a point of reference for his last location. This technique prevents the orienteer from looking all over the map for his location.

    c.   Handrails. This technique enables the orienteer to move rapidly on the ground by using existing linear features (such as trails, fences, roads, and streams) that are plotted along his route. They can also be used as limits or boundaries between control points (Figure F-10).

    Figure F-10. Handrails.

    d.   Attack Points. These are permanent known landmarks that are easily identified on the ground. They can be used as points of reference to find control points located in the woods. Some examples of attack points are stream junctions, bridges, and road intersections.


    Civilian orienteering is conducted under the guidelines of the United States Orienteering Federation with at least 70 clubs currently affiliated. Although civilian orienteering is a form of land navigation, the terms, symbols, and techniques are different from the military.

    a.   An expert military map reader/land navigator is by no means ready to compete in a civilian orienteering event. However, military experience in navigating on the ground and reading maps will help individuals to become good orienteers. Several orienteering practices and complete familiarization with the map symbols and terms before participating in a real orienteering event is recommended.

    (1)   Map. The standard orienteering map is a very detailed, 1:15,000-scale, colored topographical map. All orienteering maps contain only north-south lines that are magnetically drawn; this eliminates any declination conversions. Because of the absence of horizontal lines, grid coordinates cannot be plotted and therefore are not needed.

    (2)   Symbols (Legend). Despite standard orienteering symbols, the legend in orienteering maps has a tendency to change from map to map. A simple way to overcome this problem is to get familiar with the legend every time that a different map is used.

    (3)   Scale. The scale of orienteering maps is 1:15,000. This requires an immediate adjustment for the military land navigator, especially while moving from point to point. It takes a while for a person that commonly uses a 1:50,000 scale to get used to the orienteering map.

    (4)   Contours. The normal contour interval in an orienteering map is 5 meters. This interval, combined with the scale, makes the orienteering maps so meticulously detailed that a 1-meter boulder, a 3-meter shallow ditch, or a 1-meter depression will show on the map. This may initially shock a new orienteer.

    (5)   Terms and Description of Clues. The names of landforms are different from those commonly known to the military. For example, a valley or a draw is known as a reentrant; an intermittent stream is known as a dry ditch. These terms, with a description of clues indicating the position and location of the control points, are used instead of grid coordinates.

    b.   The characteristics of the map, the absence of grid coordinates, the description of clues, and the methods used in finding the control points are what make civilian orienteering different from military land navigation.




    The M2 compass (Figure G-1) is a rustproof and dustproof magnetic instrument that provides slope, angle of site, and azimuth readings. One of the most important features of the M2 compass is that it is graduated in mils and does not require a conversion from degrees to mils as does the M1 compass. It can be calibrated to provide a grid azimuth or it can be used uncalibrated to determine a magnetic azimuth.

    Figure G-1. M2 compass.


    Except for the magnetic needle and its pivot, the compass is made of nonmagnetic materials. When the cover is closed, the magnetic needle is automatically lifted from its pivot and held firmly against the glass window. When the compass is open and leveled, the needle floats freely upon its pivot and points to magnetic north. Note that both ends of the needle are shaped like an arrow, and that one arrow is painted white and the other is black. It is the white end of the needle that points to magnetic north. Because the needle is magnetic, it will also be attracted to large iron or steel objects in the near vicinity, to electrical power lines, and to operating generators (see paragraph 9-3b). Magnetic compass readings measured near such objects are apt to be in error due to the magnetic attraction of these objects.


    The M2 compass has a circular level that is used to level the instrument when measuring azimuths. The circular level bubble must be centered before reading the azimuth. The compass is equipped with front and rear sights for aligning on the object to which the azimuth is desired.


    The compass azimuth scale is a circle divided into 6400 mils. Beginning with zero, the graduations are numbered every 200 mils. The long, unnumbered graduations appearing halfway between the numbered graduations are the odd-numbered hundreds (100, 300, 500, and so forth). Short graduation marks divide each 100-mil segment into equal portions of 20 mils.

    a.   Reading the Azimuth Scale. Azimuths are read from the azimuth scale from the black end of the compass needle.

    b.   Setting Up the Compass. To set up the M2 compass, open the cover and fold the rear sight holder out parallel with the face of the compass. Fold the rear sight up, perpendicular with its holder. Fold the front sight up, parallel with the mirror. Then fold the cover (mirror) toward the compass until it is at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the face of the compass so that, with your eye behind the rear sight, the black end of the compass needle can be readily viewed in the mirror. The compass is now set up for measuring an azimuth.

    c.   Measuring an Azimuth. Once the compass is set up and all steel objects are at least 18 meters away from your position, you are ready to measure an azimuth. Hold the compass in both hands at eye level with your arms braced against your body and with the rear sight nearest your eyes. Sight through the rear sight and the window in the mirror and align the hairline at the reflection of the face of the compass. Center the circular level bubble. With the bubble centered and the hairline aligned on the object, look at the mirror reflection of the compass scale and read the azimuth to which the black end of the needle is pointing. Remember, magnetic attractions or movement by you may cause errors in your readings.




    This appendix provides information on the operation and function of already fielded, and soon to be fielded, devices that can be used as aids to navigation.


    These goggles are passive night vision devices. An infrared light source and positive control switch permit close-in viewing under limited illumination. The AN/PVS-5 has a field of view of 40 degrees and a range of 150 meters.

    a.   The device has the capability for continuous passive operation over a 15-hour period without battery replacement. It weighs 1.5 pounds and is face-mounted. An eyepiece diopter is provided so the device can be worn without corrective lenses.

    b.   The device is designed to assist the following tasks: command and control, fire control, reconnaissance, close-in surveillance, terrain navigation, first aid, operation and maintenance of vehicles, selection of positions, traffic control, rear and critical area security, patrolling, combat engineer tasks, radar team employment, resupply activities, and flight-line functions.

    c.   It is a fielded system used by combat, CS, and CSS elements. The infantry, armor, air defense, field artillery, aviation, engineer, intelligence, military police, transportation, signal, quartermaster, chemical, maintenance, missile, and munitions units all use the device to help accomplish their missions.

    d.   The AN/PVS-5 can assist the land navigator under limited visibility conditions. Chemical lights may be placed at selected intervals along the unit's route of movement, and they can be observed through the AN/PVS-5. Another navigation technique is to have one person reading the map while another person reads the terrain, both using AN/PVS-5's. This allows the map reader and the terrain interpreter to exchange information on what terrain is observed, both on the map and on the ground. It allows each user to concentrate his AN/PVS-5 on one task. Land navigation, especially mounted, is a task better performed by more than one person. The above technique allows one soldier to perform map interpretation in the cargo portion of the vehicle while another soldier, possibly the driver, transmits to him information pertaining to the terrain observed on the ground.


    The AN/PVS-7 is a lightweight (1.5 pounds), image intensification, passive night-vision device that uses ambient light conditions. It has the same applications as the AN/PVS-5. It is designed to be used in the same way as, and by the same units as, the AN/PVS-5. The AN/PVS-7 has a field of view of 40 meters and a range of 300 meters in moonlight and 150 meters in starlight.


    The enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS)/joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS), hybrid (PJH), is a computer-based system. It provides near real-time, secure data communications, identification, navigation, position location, and automatic reporting to support the need of commanders for information on the location, identification, and movement of friendly forces.

    a.   The EPLRS is based on synchronized radio transmissions in a network of users controlled by a master station. The major elements of a EPLRS community include the airborne, surface vehicular, and man-pack users; the EPLRS master station; and an alternate master station. The system can handle 370 user units in a division-size deployment per master station with a typical location accuracy at 15 meters. The man-pack unit weighs 23 pounds and includes the basic user unit, user readout, antenna, backpack, and two batteries.

    b.   The EPLRS are deployed at battalion and company level. Its use allows 

    (1)   Infantry or tank platoons to locate their positions, know the location of their friendly units, navigate to predetermined locations, and be informed when near or crossing boundaries.

    (2)   Artillery batteries to locate forward observers and friendly units, and position firing batteries.

    (3)   Aircraft to locate their exact positions; know the location of other friendly units; navigate to any friendly units, or a location entered by pilot; navigate in selected flight corridors; and be alerted when entering or leaving corridors or boundaries.

    (4)   Command and control elements at all echelons to locate and control friendly units/aircraft.

    c.   The network control station is located at brigade level to provide position location/navigation and identification services. It also provides interface between the battalion and company systems, and the JTIDS terminals.

    d.   It is fielded to infantry, armor, field artillery, military police, engineer, intelligence, aviation, signal, and air defense artillery units.

    e.   The EPLRS is a system that allows units to navigate from one point to another with the capability of locating itself and other friendly units equipped with the same system.


    The GPS is a space-based, radio-positioning navigation system that provides accurate passive position, speed, distance, and bearing of other locations to suitably equipped users.

    a.   The system assists the user in performing such missions as siting, surveying, tactical reconnaissance, sensor emplacement, artillery forward observing, close air support, general navigation, mechanized maneuver, engineer surveying, amphibious operations, signal intelligence operations, electronic warfare operations, and ground-based forward air control.

    b.   It can be operated in all weather, day or night, anywhere in the world; it may also be used during nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare.

    c.   It has been widely fielded in both active and reserve component units. (See Appendix J for more information on GPS.)


    The PADS is a highly mobile, self-contained, passive, all-weather, survey-accurate position/navigation instrument used by field artillery and air defense artillery units for fire support missions. Its basis of issue is two sets per artillery battalion. The device is about the size of a 3-kilowatt generator and weighs 322.8 pounds in operational configuration.

    a.   The two-man PADS survey party uses the high-mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicle, the commercial utility cargo vehicle, the small-unit support vehicle, or the M151 1/4-ton utility truck. The system can be transferred while operating into the light observation helicopter (OH-58A) or driven into the CH-47 medium cargo helicopter.

    b.   The system provides real-time, three-dimensional coordinates in meters and a grid azimuth in mils. It also gives direction and altitude.

    c.   The PADS can be used by the land navigator to assist in giving accurate azimuth and distance between locations. A unit requiring accurate information as to its present location can also use PADS to get it. The PADS, if used properly, can assist many units in the performance of their mission.


    Laser devices are potentially dangerous. Their rays can and will burn someone's eyes if they look directly at them. Users should not direct the beams at friendly positions or where they could reflect off shiny surfaces into friendly positions. Other soldiers must know where lasers are being used and take care not to look directly at the laser beam.


    The G/VLLD is the Army's long-range designator for precision-guided semi-active laser weapons. It is two-man portable for short distances and can be mounted on the M113A1 interim FIST vehicle when it has the vehicle adapter assembly. The G/VLLD provides accurate observer-to-target distance, vertical angle, and azimuth data to the operator. All three items of information are visible in the operator's eyepiece display.

    a.   The G/VLLD is equipped with an AN/TAS-4 night sight. This night sight increases the operator's ability to detect and engage targets during reduced visibility caused by darkness or battlefield obscuration.

    b.   The G/VLLD can give the navigator accurate line-of-sight distance to an object. The system can be used to determine its present location using resection and can assist the navigator in determining azimuth and distance to his objective.


    The QRMP is a self-contained, laser, xerography printer capable of reproducing maps, photographs, annotated graphics, transparent originals, and digital terrain data in full color on transparent material or standard map paper. The QRMP system will consist of a QRMP housed in an 8' by 8' by 20' ISO shelter mounted on a 5-ton truck with a dedicated military-standard 30-kilowatt generator. Each system will carry at least a seven-day supply of all necessary materials.

    a.   The QRMP system has map size (24" by 30" paper size and 22.5" by 29" image size), color printing, scanning and electronics subsystems. It produces the first copy in less than five minutes in full color and sustains a copy rate of 50 to 100 copies per hour for full color products. The system uses a charged couple device array for scanning and sophisticated electronic signal processing to electrostatically discharge a selenium photoreceptor drum.

    b.   The QRMP has the capability to print terrain and other graphics directly from digital output from the digital topographic support system or another QRMP. The first unit is scheduled to be equipped with the QRMP in 1QFY97, and the initial operating capability is scheduled for 4QFY97. The QRMP system is used by the engineer topographers at division, corps, and echelons above corps.




    The use of foreign maps poses several problems to the land navigator. These products are often inferior in both content reliability and topographic accuracy to those produced by the DMA. Clues to these weaknesses are the apparent crudeness of the maps, unusually old compilation dates, or differences in mapped and actual terrain. The following characteristics should be examined closely.


    Of all the symbols on foreign maps, those for hydrography conform most closely to DMA usage. The use of blue lines and areas to depict streams, rivers, lakes, and seas seems to be universally accepted. The one caution to be observed is that foreign cartographers use different sets of rules to govern what is and what is not included on the map. Distinction between perennial and intermittent streams is usually not made.


    The classification and symbols for vegetation on most foreign maps are different to those used on DMA maps. The vegetation included on many foreign maps is often extensive, identifying not only vegetated areas--but also the specific types of vegetation present. Green is the predominant color used to represent vegetation; but, blue and black are sometimes used. The symbols that depict the various types of vegetation differ greatly from one foreign map to another.


    Perhaps the most striking difference between DMA and foreign maps is the set of symbols used to portray cultural features. Some symbols found on foreign maps are very unusual. Symbols for linear features on foreign maps are also likely to confuse the user who is accustomed to DMA symbols. DMA uses 10 basic road symbols to portray different classes of roads and trails; foreign mappers use many more.


    Foreign maps generally use contour lines to portray terrain relief, but substantial variability exists in the contour intervals employed. They may range from 5 to 100 meters.

    I-5. SCALE

    Scales found on foreign maps include 1:25,000, 1:63,360, 1:63,600, 1:75,000, and 1:100,000. Most foreign large-scale topographic maps have been overprinted with 1,000-meter grid squares; so, it is unlikely that the variable scales will have much effect on your ability to use them. However, you must learn to estimate grid coordinates because your 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 grid coordinate scales may not work.


    After discussing the many difficulties and limited advantages encountered when using foreign maps, it is only appropriate that some strategy be offered to help you with the task.

    a.   In the August 1942 issue of The Military Engineer, Robert B. Rigg, Lieutenant, Cavalry, suggested a five-step process for reading and interpreting foreign maps. It is as appropriate today as it was when he first proposed it.

    Step 1. Look for the date of the map first. There are generally four dates: survey and compilation, publication, printing and reprinting, and revision. The date of the survey and compilation is most important. A conspicuous date of revision generally means that the entire map was not redrawn only spot revisions were made.

    Step 2. Note whether the publisher is military, government, or civilian. Maps published by the government or the military are generally most accurate.

    Step 3. Look at the composition. To a great extent, this will reveal the map's accuracy. Was care taken in the cartography? Are symbols and labels properly placed? Is the draftsmanship precise? Is the coastline or river bank detailed?

    Step 4. Observe the map's color. Does it enhance your understanding or does it obscure and confuse? The importance of one subject (coloring) must warrant canceling others. If it confuses, the map is probably not very accurate.

    Step 5. Begin to decode the various map colors, symbols, and terms. Study these items by examining one feature classification at a time (culture, hydrography, topography, and vegetation). As an accomplished navigator, you should already have a good understanding of your area of operations, so translation of the map's symbols should not present an impossible task. Use your notebook to develop an English version of the legend or create a new legend of your own.

    b.   In dealing with the challenge of using a foreign map, be certain to use these five steps. In doing so, you are also encouraged to bring to bear all that you know about the geographic area and your skills in terrain analysis, map reading, map interpretation, and problem solving. After careful and confident analysis, you will find that what you do know about the foreign map is more than what you do not know about it. The secret often lies in the fact that the world portrayed on a map represents a kind of international language of its own, which allows you to easily determine the map's accuracy and to decode its colors, symbols, and labels.




    The ability to accurately determine position location has always been a major problem for soldiers. However, the global positioning system has solved that problem. Soldiers will now be able to determine their position accurately to within 10 meters.


    The GPS is a satellite-based, radio navigational system. It consists of a constellation with 24 active satellites that interfaces with a ground-, air-, or sea-based receiver. Each satellite transmits data that enables the GPS receiver to provide precise position and time to the user. The GPS receivers come in several configurations, hand-held, vehicular-mounted, aircraft-mounted, and watercraft-mounted.


    The GPS is based on satellite ranging. It figures the users� position on earth by measuring the distance from a group of satellites in space to the users� location. For accurate three-dimensional data, the receiver must track four or more satellites. Most GPS receivers provide the user with the number of satellites that it is tracking, and whether or not the signals are good. Some receivers can be manually switched to track only three satellites if the user knows his altitude. This method provides the user with accurate data much faster than that provided by tracking four or more satellites. Each type receiver has a number of mode keys that have a variety of functions. To better understand how the GPS receiver operates, refer to the operators' manual.


    The GPS provides worldwide, 24-hour, all-weather, day or night coverage when the satellite constellation is complete. The GPS can locate the position of the user accurately to within 21 meters�95 percent of the time. However, the GPS has been known to accurately locate the position of the user within 8 to 10 meters. It can determine the distance and direction from the user to a programmed location or the distance between two programmed locations called way points. It provides exact date and time for the time zone in which the user is located. The data supplied by the GPS is helpful in performing several techniques, procedures, and missions that require soldiers to know their exact location. Some examples are:

  • Sighting.

  • Surveying.

  • Sensor or minefield emplacement.

  • Forward observing.

  • Close air support.

  • Route planning and execution.

  • Amphibious operations.

  • Artillery and mortar emplacement.

  • Fire support planning.


    A constellation of 24 satellites broadcasts precise signals for use by navigational sets. The satellites are arranged in six rings that orbit the earth twice each day. The GPS navigational signals are similar to light rays, so anything that blocks the light will reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. The more unobstructed the view of the sky, the better the system performs.


    All GPS receivers have primarily the same function, but the input and control keys vary between the different receivers. The GPS can reference and format position coordinates in any of the following systems:

  • Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (DMS): Latitude/longitude-based system with position expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

  • Degrees, Minutes (DM): Latitude/longitude-based system with position expressed in degrees and minutes.

  • Universal Traverse Mercator (UTM): Grid zone system with the northing and easting position expressed in meters.

  • Military Grid Reference System (MGRS): Grid zone/grid square system with coordinates of position expressed in meters.

    The following is a list of land navigation subjects from other sections of this manual in which GPS can be used to assist soldiers in navigating and map reading:

    a.   Grid Coordinates (Chapter 4). GPS makes determining a 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-digit grid coordinate of a location easy. On most GPS receivers, the position mode will give the user a 10-digit grid coordinate to their present location.

    b.   Distance (Chapter 5) and Direction (Chapter 6). The mode for determining distance and direction depends on the GPS receiver being used. One thing the different types of receivers have in common is that to determine direction and distance, the user must enter at least one way point (WPT). When the receiver measures direction and distance from the present location or from way point to way point, the distance is measured in straight line only. Distance can be measured in miles, yards, feet, kilometers, meters, or nautical knots or feet. For determining direction, the user can select degrees, mils, or rads. Depending on the receiver, the user can select true north, magnetic north, or grid north.

    c.   Navigational Equipment and Methods (Chapter 9). Unlike the compass, the GPS receiver when set on navigation mode (NAV) will guide the user to a selected way point by actually telling the user how far left or right the user has drifted from the desired azimuth. With this option, the user can take the most expeditious route possible, moving around an obstacle or area without replotting and reorienting.

    d.   Mounted Land Navigation (Chapter 12). While in the NAV mode, the user can navigate to a way point using steering and distance, and the receiver will tell the user how far he has yet to travel, and at the current speed, how long it will take to get to the way point.

    e.   Navigation in Different Types of Terrain (Chapter 13). The GPS is capable of being used in any terrain, especially more open terrain like the desert.

    f.   Unit Sustainment (Chapter 14). The GPS can be used to read coordinates to quickly and accurately establish and verify land navigation courses.




    The precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR) is a highly accurate satellite signal navigation set (referred to in this appendix as AN/PSN-11).


    The AN/PSN-11 is designed for battlefield use anywhere in the world. It is sealed watertight for all weather day or night operation. The AN/PSN-11 is held in the left hand and operated with the thumb of the left hand. Capability is included for installation in ground facilities, and air, sea, and land vehicles. The AN/PSN-11 is operated stand-alone using prime battery power and integral antenna. It can be used with external power source and external antenna.

    a.   The AN/PSN-11 provides the user with position coordinates, time, and navigation information under all conditions, if 

  • No obstructions block the line-of-sight satellite signal from reaching the antenna.

  • Valid crypto keys are used to protect the AN/PSN-11 from intentionally degraded satellite signals.

    b.   Many data fields, such as elevation, display units of information. The format of the units can be changed to your most familiar format.

    c.   Map coordinates are entered as a way point. When a way point is selected as a destination, the AN/PSN-11 provides steering indications, azimuth, and range information to the destination. A desired course to a way point is entered. Offset distance from this course line is shown.

    d.   Up to 999 way points can be entered, stored, and selected as a destination. A route is defined for nav either start-to-end or end-to-start. The route consists of up to nine legs (10 way points) linked together.


    Data provided by the AN/PVS-11 helps complete missions such as:

  • Siting.

  • Surveying.

  • Tactical reconnaissance.

  • Sensor emplacement.

  • Artillery forward observing.

  • Close air support.

  • General navigation.

  • Mechanized maneuvers.

  • Engineer surveying.

  • Amphibious operations.

  • Parachute operations.

  • Signal intelligence.

  • Electronic warfare.

  • Ground-based forward air control.

    This data is displayed on the AN/PSN-11display. It is also available from a serial data port.


    The AN/PSN-11 is less than 9.5 inches long, 4.1 inches wide, and 2.6 inches deep. It weighs 2.75 pounds with all batteries in place. The small size and lightweight make the set easy to carry and use. The durable plastic case is sealed for all-weather use. The AN/PSN-11 features make it easy to use. (These features are highlighted in the physical description in Figure K-1).

    Figure K-1. Physical features.


    Setting up the operation parameters of the PLGR is critical. This section describes the display, procedures, and principles used in setting the AN/PSN-11displays to suit the needs of the user. This display consists of seven pages that allows the user to control the following parameters:

  • Operating mode.

  • Type of satellites to use.

  • Coordinate system.

  • Units.

  • Magnetic variation.

  • Display customization.

  • Navigation Display mode.

  • Elevation hold mode.

  • Time and error formats.

  • Datum.

  • Automatic off timer.

  • Datum port configuration.

  • AutoMark mode.

    To set the PLGR up for continuous operation:

    a.   Turn the PLGR ON. Once it has completed its built-in-test (BIT) press the MENU key and move the cursor to SETUP (Figure K-2). Activate the SETUP function.

    Figure K-2. SETUP.

    b.   The first screen (Figure K-3) allows the operator to set the operating mode and SV-Type. Scroll through the operating modes and select CONT and for the SV-Type Mixed.

    Figure K-3. Operating mode and SV-type.

    c.   The second screen (Figure K-4) allows the operator to setup the units. Scroll through the available coordinates and select MGRS-New and Metric. For the Elevation select meter and MSL and for the Angle select Degrees and Magnetic.

    Figure K-4. Setup the units.

    d.   The third screen (Figure K-5) should be set for the MAGVAR (Magnetic variation or GM Angle for your area). The operator can select Calculate the degree or manually enter degrees as an Easterly or Westerly GM Angle; for example, E021.0 for the TENINO Map Sheet.

    Figure K-5. Magnetic variation or GM angle setup.

    e.   The fourth screen (Figure K-6) of setup allows the operator to set the Elevation Hold, Time, and Error. The operator should set the ELHOLD to automatic. As for time the operator needs to know, from their present location, how many hours they are ahead of or behind Greenwich Mean Time. For example, during Daylight savings time, Fort Benning, GA. is Loc=Z-0400. To set the ERR, the operator selects -+m to let him know in meters how accurate the PLGR is operating.

    Figure K-6. Set elevation, time, hold, and error.

    f.   The fifth screen (Figure K-7) of setup allows the operator to set the PLGR Datum to their area of operation and to set the Automatic Off Timer. The PLGR has fifty-two map Datum sets available. The operator should set the PLGR Datum to their area of operation. For example, if your map Datum is WGS-84, the operator sets the PLGR to WGS-84. If the map is 1927 North America Datum, the operator sets the Datum to NAS-C. The automatic timer off is used to turn the PLGR off after a prescribed time once it has acquired a fixed position. The operator should set this mode to OFF.

    Figure K-7. Set the PLGR Datum.

    g.   The sixth screen (Figure K-8) in setup is the In/Out Port screen. This page allows the operator to control serial communications, HAVEQUICK and 1PPS options. Select Standard unless otherwise directed and select OFF for Havequick and 1PPS.

    Figure K--8. In/out port screen.

    h.   The seventh screen (Figure K-9) is setup AUTOMARK. This feature allows the operator to have the PLGR periodically wake-up, acquire a position fix, store the position as a way point, or return to the mode of operation it was previously in. The operator should set this mode to OFF. The remaining pages for SETUP are for advance GPS users.

    Figure K--9. AUTOMARK setup.

    i.   Once the PLGR is SETUP, the operator can now obtain a position. This procedure is accomplished by activating the Position (POS) key. The position displayed is OLD information until the receiver collects and calculates satellite data and displays the current position. The receiver must be tracking three satellites to obtain a two-dimensional fix position and four or more satellites for a three-dimensional fix position. The third dimension is elevation.


    A way point is the location of a point on a desired course described by coordinates or a physical location. A normal mission consists of a series of way points. The way points available on the AN/PSN-11 are 999 (numbered 01 through 999).

    a.   This paragraph describes the AN/PSN-11 way point displays and way point operations. The way point display pages are used to perform the following operations:

  • Enter, edit, or review way points.

  • Copy way points.

  • Determine the distance between way points.

  • Calculate a new way point.

  • Clear way points.

  • Define a mission route.

    b.   To enter a way point, the operator needs to press the way point (WP) key (Figure K-10). When the way point menu appears, the ENTER function flashes. The operator presses the down arrow key to activate this field. Now the operator enters a way point name, grid zone designator, 100,000-meter grid square identifier, 10-digit grid coordinate, and elevation.

    Figure K--10. Enter a way point.

    c.   To enter a way point name, the operator presses the right arrow key until the first letter of the word UNUSED(WP#) is flashing (Figure K-11). Scroll up or down through the alphabet changing the letter U to whatever is desired. For example, if the operator wanted to name their way point NORTH STAR, the operator scrolls down the alphabet until the letter U is changed to the letter N (Figure K-12). The operator repeats this process for the remaining letters.

    Figure K--11. Unused.


    Figure K-12. Change a name.

    d.   Second line, the operator enters the grid zone designator for their area of operation. For example, the Fort Benning area falls in the 16S zone.

    e.   Third line, the operator must enter a 10-digit grid coordinate with its 100,000-meter grid square identifier. For example, if the way point location is Offutt Lake, Tenino map sheet, the 100,000-meter grid square identifier is EG. Then, the operator plots the grid coordinates on the map and enters it into the PLGR.

    NOTE: Operator plots 8-digit grid coordinates, however a 10-digit coordinate is entered. Therefore, the 5th and 10th digit entered is a zero (0).

    f.   For the fourth line, if the elevation of the way point is known, the operator can enter it. If the elevation is not known the operator can just leave the data as zero or No EL. The operator moves the cursor until the Up and Down arrow symbol appears before the letter P or N in bottom right corner. When activating the down arrow key the operator stores the way point into the PLGR�s memory. The PLGR notifies the operator that the way point has been stored.

    NOTE: When entering numbers, the NUM LOCK can be activated. The letter N appears in the bottom right corner allowing the operator to use the numbers on the keypad rather then scrolling up/down (Figure K-12).



    Navigation (nav) is using the AN/PSN-11 to find your present position, relative to other points. The AN/PSN-11 provides azimuth, range, and steering information in a variety of formats. There are four navigation display modes that may be accessed and selected. The navigation display mode selected determines the type of information shown on the navigation displays. These navigation displays give the user the most useful information for a certain mission profile: SLOW, 2D FAST, 3D FAST OR CUSTOM.

  • In SLOW nav mode, the AN/PSN-11 performs two-dimensional (2D) nav. Slow nav mode is used for land or sea nav, when the user cannot maintain the minimum speed necessary (about 1.5 kmph).

  • In 2D FAST nav mode, the AN/PSN-11 performs two-dimensional (2D) nav. 2D FAST nav mode is used for land or sea nav, when the user can maintain the minimum speed necessary for GPS to compute navigation parameters based on velocity.

  • In 3D FAST nav mode, the AN/PSN-11 performs three-dimentional (3D) nav. 3D FAST nav mode has an APPROACH sub-mode. 3D FAST nav mode is used for air nav, when the user can travel in three dimensions and can maintain the minimum speed necessary for GPS to compute navigation parameters based on velocity.

  • In CUSTOM nav mode, the AN/PSN-11 performs the users navigational display pages as so desired. It can be set-up to support the individual user�s performances or mission requirements. The following custom display modes are available:

  • Direct.

  • Course To.

  • Course From.

  • Route.

  • Approach.

    To navigate with the PLGR on land in a Dead-Reckoning method, the PLGR nav mode is accomplished as follows.

    a.   The operator presses the NAV key activating the nav function. The first screen that appears is the nav mode (Figure K-13). For example, SLOW, 2D FAST, 3D FAST, CUSTOM, DIRECT, CRS TO, and CRS FROM.

    Figure K--13. Navigation mode.

    b.   The operator selects the 2D FAST and DIRECT. The second line is the way point desired to be navigated. (Scroll through the way points that are stored to choose the desired way point.)

    c.   To see the azimuth that the navigator should be traveling on, go to the next page by pressing the down arrow key (Figure K-14). This page tells the navigator what azimuth they are heading on (TRK=tracking), and the actual azimuth the navigator should be heading on (AZ). The fourth line tells the navigator Steering (STR). A direction (< >) and a number of degrees the navigator needs to move to travel on their actual azimuth.

    Figure K--14. Azimuth.

    d.   The third screen (Figure K-15) tells the navigator the range or distance to their way point and how much time (TTG2) it will take them to get to their way point. This page also lets the navigator know what is the elevation difference from their present location to the way point and by how much they will miss their way point by (MMD).

    Figure K--15. Range or distance.



    AA avenue of approach
    ANCOC advanced noncommissioned officer course
    AR Army regulation
    BNCOC basic noncomissioned officer course
    BT basic training
    cm centimeter
    CONUS continental United States
    CS combat support
    CSS combat service support
    CUCV commercial utility cargo vehicle
    DD Department of Defense
    DMA Defense Mapping Agency
    E east
    EPLRS enhanced position location reporting system
    FIST fire support team
    FM field manual
    FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command
    GD ground distance
    GEOREF geographic reference system
    G-M grid-magnetic
    GPS global positioning system
    GSR ground surveillance radar
    GTA graphic training aid
    G/VLLD ground/vehicular laser locator designator
    HD horizontal distance
    HHC headquarters and headquarters company
    HMMWV high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
    JOG joint operations graphics
    JTIDS joint tactical information distribution system
    km kilometer
    LAT latitude
    MD map distance
    METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops and time available
    MITAC map interpretation and terrain association course
    N north
    NCO noncommissioned officer
    OAC officer advanced course
    OBC officer basic course
    OCS officer candidate school
    OSUT one station unit training
    PADS position and azimuth determining system
    PD photo distance
    PJH hybrid (PLRS and JTIDS)
    PLDC primary leadership development course
    PLGR Precision Lightweight Global Positioning System Receiver
    POI program of instruction
    PRE precommission
    QRMP quick response multicolor printer
    ROTC Reserve Officers' Training Corps




    standard form


    shapes, orientations, sizes, elevations, and slopes


    small-unit support vehicle
    tan tangent
    TM technical manual
    TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missile
    TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
    topo topographic
    UPS universal polar stereographic
    US United States
    USGS United States Geological Survey
    UTM universal transverse mercator
    VD vertical distance
    VNAS vehicular navigation aids system
    W west




    These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
    FM 21-31. Topographic Symbols, 19 June l961.
    FM 25-4. How to Conduct Training Exercises. 10 September 1984.
    FM 25-100. Training the Force. 15 November 1988.
    FM 25-101. Battle Focused Training. 30 September 1990.
    FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Graphics. 30 September l997.
    These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.
    AR 115-11. Army Topography. 30 November 1993.
    AR 380-5. Department of the Army Information Security Program. 29 September 2000.
    AR 380-40. Policy for Safeguarding and Controlling Communications and Security (COMSEC) Material. 30 June 2000.
    FM 5-33. Terrain Analysis. 11 July 1990.
    FM 34-1. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations. 27 September 1994.
    FM 34-3. Intelligence Analysis. 15 March 1990.
    FM 101-10-1. Staff Officers Field Manual: Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data. 1 July 1976.
    TC 6-40. Field Artillery Manual Cannon Gunnery. 27 December 1988.
    TM 5-240. Compilation and Color Separation of Topographic Maps. 15 June 1971.
    TM 5-243. Cartographic Aerial Photography. 2 January 1970.
    TM 11-5825-291-13. Operations and Maintenance Manual for Satellite Signals Navigation Sets. 15 September 1995.
    TB 11-5825-291-10-2. Soldiers� Guide for the Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) AN/PSN-11. 1 December 1996.
    TB 11-5825-291-10-3. The PLGR Made Simple. 1 November 1997.



    FM 3-25.26 (FM 21-26)
    20 JULY 2001

    By Order of the Secretary of the Army:


    General, United States Army
    Chief of Staff
    Administrative Assistant to the
    Secretary of the Army





    Active Army, US Army Reserve, and Army National Guard: To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number 110166, requirements for FM 3-25.26.


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    Table of Contents
    Chapters 1 - 6

    Chapters 7 - 10

    Chapters 11 - 14