12 July 2001
Table of Contents
The topographic community has dramatically increased its ability to provide timely, accurate map backgrounds and decision aids to assist the commander at all echelons to visualize the terrain. Digital methods of topographic analysis, cartography, printing, and surveying have revolutionized the methods of presenting essential elements of terrain information. Combined with the ability to transmit GI rapidly around the world, this will assist the engineer in establishing the CTOE for the war fighter.
B-161. This appendix is intended to provide a graphical reference for the war fighter. It is divided into three main sectionsstandard topographic products and services provided by NIMA, nonstandard topographic products and TDAs produced by the topographic unit, and terrain-evaluation aids produced by the individual consumers. All of these processes depend on a common database of GI. The use of GI data ranges from product viewing and terrain evaluation to complex terrain analyses. The DTSS is the primary tool used to prepare complex products or TDAs. This support can be found at theater, corps, and division. Several suites of government and commercial software will provide the individual consumer with the tools to view and evaluate the terrain.
B-162. Standard NIMA-produced maps, graphics, and digital GI are available through normal supply channels. This includes, but is not limited, to standard stock-numbered items such as
B-163. Nonstandard topographic products are produced from multiple sources and can be printed on film (when available) or paper. They can also be transmitted digitally via signal assets in several file formats. These products are used as TDAs or map substitutes.
B-164. A TDA is any product that assists the commander in visualizing the terrain. It is an enhanced representation of existing terrain and weather data used to highlight impacts to military operations. TDA models include, but are not limited to the following models. The paragraphs that follow are examples of TDAs produced by these models.
B-165. The mobility model provides speed predictions for movement on road, off road, and across rivers and streams under specific weather conditions. It is also used to determine the major reasons (primary vehicle, terrain, or weather influences) that cause either restricted mobility or speed reductions for vehicles or foot marches. The mobility model uses
B-166. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the mobility model:
-167. The terrain-elevation model produces products based on DTED. These products will provide the battlefield commander with a quick view of the terrain based on relief and slope. Elevation products are useful for determining air avenues of approach (AAs), signal transmission and reception sites, key terrain, and mobility (based on slope).
B-168. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the terrain-elevation model:
B-169. The SPPB model provides the capability to produce, combine, and query attributes of existing products. This enables the creation of user-defined output products such as concealment, bivouac sites, construction resources, drop zones, and landing zones. The SPPB model
B-170. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the SPPB model:
-171. The intervisibility models graphically display information based on terrain elevation (including feature height [vegetation]) if it is selected and available. The models are used to depict areas where observers and targets would be visible to each other or hidden from view. The intervisibility model
B-172. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the intervisibility model:
B-173. The TACDAM model predicts dam breaching and reservoir overflow results based on DTED, vector coverage, and other user-defined parameters. The TACDAM model has the following characteristics:
B-174. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the TACDAM model:
B-175. IMETS data is converted into polygonal vector coverages that are used as stand-alone products or interactive data needed to predict mobility and intervisibility. The IMETS models has the following characteristics:
B-176. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the IMETS model:
B-177. The environmental and climatology models provide planning tools to determine the effects on material and personnel; sunrise and sunset; moonrise, moonset, and illumination; helicopter load predictions; and historical climatology. The following are examples of TDAs produced by the environmental and climatology models:
B-178. Terrain evaluation does not include such in-depth studies as cross-country mobility, which requires the analysis of climatology and current weather conditions, soil conditions, and enemy and friendly vehicle performance metrics. However, terrain evaluation does include the tangible aspects of slope, relief, distance, accessibility, features, map and image display, and three-dimensional (3-D) viewing. Various government off-the-shelf (GOTS) and COTS software applications can be used as terrain-evaluation tools. The following are examples of subtasks provided within the terrain-evaluation tool kit:
B-179. Terrain-evaluation tools provide the ability to view maps, imagery, feature data, and elevation data in numerous digital file formats (see Figure B-35). This allows the user to focus on a specific area for evaluation.
B-180. The LOS creates a profile view of the terrain from the observer's location to a target. The green lines show what the observer can see; the red lines show what he cannot see (dead space). The LOS can also display the Fresnel zones of different radio frequencies. See Figure B-36.
B-181. Weapons fans are extremely useful and versatile tools for all BOSs to identify enemy and friendly battle positions, template obstacle locations, determine ambush sites, and so forth. Weapons fans can be drawn on elevation data, imagery, and digital maps. See Figure B-37.
B-182. A slope map shades the elevation file into assigned or user-specified slope categories. Figure B-38 shows a trafficability slope map with the four basic colors that represent the slope restrictions of the NRMMIIunrestricted, 0 to 30 percent; restricted 30 to 45 percent; and severely restricted, over 45 percent. This is especially handy for the IPB process.
B-183. The terrain category allows you to highlight a specific combination of slope, relief, and elevation values using the elevation file. Figure B-39 shows all areas of a 500-meter radius with a slope of 0 to 2 percent. This application is especially helpful in locating base-camp sites; landing zones and drop zones; artillery cant; petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) and water sites; and so forth.
B-184. Perspective view creates a 3-D view from a chosen position. You can select the observer's elevation, width of view, and range. This is especially helpful in checking battle positions, AAs, and terrain association. You can also drape the actual elevation colors, imagery, and maps on top. See Figures B-40 and B-41.
B-185. An oblique view creates a 3-D view of the terrain from an aerial point of view. It is especially helpful in terrain visualization in areas with significant relief. Obliques can also be used to view battle positions, AAs, mobility corridors, and engagement-area development. You can drape imagery, maps, or overlays as obliques. See Figure B-42.
B-186. A flythrough allows you to fly across the terrain in a 3-D view, whether viewed with the elevation data, over imagery, or on a map. This tool will create a series of perspective views along your selected flight path, which are played in rapid succession. The flythrough has many options and can be saved as an animated graphics interchange format (GIF), video, or movie file for viewing outside of the terrain-evaluations tool.
B-187. A panorama view allows you to view the terrain 360 degrees around you, whether on the ground or in the air. Like a flythrough, it can be viewed with the elevation data, over imagery, or on a map. This tool will create a series of perspective views at selected angle increments, which are played in rapid succession going clockwise or counterclockwise. The panorama view has many options and can be saved as video and movie files for viewing outside of the terrain-evaluation tools.
B-188. GPS waypoints and tracks can be downloaded from the military precise lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR). The waypoints or track can be displayed in the terrain-evaluation tool. Additionally, the track can be used to create a flythrough. Waypoints can also be created in the terrain-evaluation tool and uploaded to a military GPS receiver. The user can then navigate solely by GPS. The latter technique can be used to upload a route into all of the GPS receivers for a unit making a night move. Live GPS tracking capability provides real-time bearing and speed data.
B-189. The terrain-evaluation tool has a simple distance-measuring routine with which to calculate the length of single or multileg routes in kilometers. For multileg routes, it will keep track of both individual leg lengths and the cumulative route length. The terrain-evaluation tool can also calculate the slope and bearing of each leg as well.
B-190. The terrain-evaluation tool provides imbedded datum transformation and coordinate conversions. It also has the ability to display primary and secondary datums in one display.
B-191. Another important capability of the terrain-evaluation tool is to merge multiple elevation files into one file (all operations seem to fall on the edge of two or more files). You can then permanently subset a small elevation slice out of the large file to cover your AO. See Figure B-43.
B-192. This terrain-evaluation tool gives the user an opportunity to visualize the relief while maintaining a common map or image background. See Figures B-44 and B-45.
B-193. The tools provided to the topographic community as well as the tools provided to the individual customer allow the user to view, value add, manipulate, and print digitized maps and imagery. See Figures B-46 through B-48.
B-194. The integration of standard NIMA GI with data collected through other methods (qualified data) will provide a means to thoroughly visualize the terrain. The DTSS has the capability to combine layers of geographic information with TDAs and qualified data to produce a customer-defined terrain analysis or terrain depiction of the battle space. The terrain-evaluation tools provide a similar capability; however, they are limited by the amount and type of data they can consume, process, and analyze.
Figure B-1. On-Road Speed
Figure B-2. Off-Road Speed
Figure B-3. On-Road Reason
Figure B-4. Off-road Reason
Figure B-5. On-road speed comparison (HMMWV versus M1A1 tank)
Figure B-6. Off-road speed comparison (HMMWV versus M1A1 tank)
Figure B-7. Trafficability
Figure B-8. Surface degradation
Figure B-9. Gap crossing
Figure B-10. Gap-crossing reason
Figure B-11. On-road route
Figure B-12. Overland route (Shaded-relief background)
Figure B-13. Mobility corridors
Figure B-14. shaded-time distance with overland route
Figure B-15. Contours
Figure B-16. Contour tint
Figure B-17. Elevation tint
Figure B-18. Slope
Figure B-19. Slope aspect
Figure B-20. Helicopter landing zone
Figure B-21. Helicopter landing zones in masked areas (LANDSAT background)
Figure B-22. Masked-area plot (shaded relief background)
Figure B-23. Target acquisition (shaded relief background)
Figure B-24. Flight-line masking (shaded relief background)
Figure B-25. Flight-line target locator (shaded relief background)
Figure B-26. Obstructed-signal loss
Figure B-27. Unobstructed-signal loss
Figure B-28. Dam break, flood zone
Figure B-29. Dam break, depth contour
Figure B-30. Dam break, velocity contour
Figure B-31. Surface pressure
Figure B-32. Surface-wind direction
Figure B-33. Soil temperature
Figure B-34. Visibility
Figure B-35. Digital data viewing
Figure B-36. Line of sight
Figure B-37. Weapons fans
Figure B-38. Slope map
Figure B-39. Terrain Category
Figure B-40. Perspective View
Figure B-41. Perspective View
Figure B-42. Oblique view
Figure B-43. Elevation merger
Figure B-44. Elevation/slope merger with maps or imagery
Figure B-45. Elevation/slope merger with maps or imagery
Figure B-46. Topographic line map
Figure B-47. CIB 10- and 5-meter resolution
Figure B-48. High-resolution elevation data (1-meter light detection and ranging)