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12 November 2005

Anonymous has provided eight cryptography and mathematics research papers from North Korea and a web page (below): "Pyongyang Patent & Trademark Agency (PPTA) is the oldest and largest IP law firm in the DPR Korea."

The nine documents in a Zipped file: (1MB)

1. A New Method for Speeding Up ECC Operations (4 pages, PDF, 144KB)

*The authors are working at the Institute of Mathematics in The Academy of Sciences of DPR Korea.

**Address : Un Jong district Kwahakdong Number 1 Pyongyang DPR Korea

Abstract: Now, the best costs of elliptic doubling and addition on binary fields are believed to be 4M+5S (namely, four finite field multiplications and five field squarings) and 8M+5S respectively. In this paper we reduce these costs to less than 3M+3S and 8M+1S respectively by using a new so-called ML-coordinate and rewriting the elliptic curve doubling formula. Combining a little programming skill, this method speeds up elliptic scalar multiplication by about 15-20 percent.

2. A Method for Picking a Rational Point on Elliptic Curves over F2n (11 pages, DOC, 262KB)

Abstract : This paper provides a method for picking a rational point on elliptic curves over the finite field of characteristic 2. The method is practically much more useful than the traditional random picking method, in the case when the cryptosystem replaces elliptic curves randomly in run-time.

3. Fractal-Structured Karatsuba`s Algorithm for Binary Field Multiplication: FK (5 pages, PDF, 168KB)

*The authors are working at the Institute of Mathematics in The Academy of Sciences of DPR Korea.

**Address : Un Jong district Kwahakdong Number 1 Pyongyang DPR Korea

Abstract: In this paper we report a software implementation of binary field multiplication, based on a new fractal-structured algorithm, which in practice is much faster than the current methods for the multiplication.[2,6,14,15]

Our software implementation shows that the new method archives surprising speed-up. For example, our programm on a Pentium ?-533, without optimization of compiler, by C source code edited by Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, takes only 7.04 s µ per multiplication in the field GF(2 431 ). We point out that the algorithm too suits for hardware implementation.

4. Projects based on the FK-method (6 pages, PDF, 84KB)

1. Introduction

High-speed algorithm for arithmetic operation in the finite fields is the one of fundamental techniques which affects on the whole IT industry from IC card chip to internet protocol design.

Because of just this importance, almost of research works on the speed enhancements of the finite field operations has been steadily supported by governments, organizations and enterprises such as Intel.

This document gives the outline of new method that significantly speeds up the finite field multiplication and describes what is possible when using this new method to practics.

5. A Method of Face Detection using Geometrical Structure of Human Face (6 pages, DOC, 190KB)


Face detection is the most important and critical task of face recognition.

In this paper, we propose a new method of face detection by using human face geometry. We conducted our experiment with 5500 face images which are captured from CCD camera under the varying condition of illumination, pose and expression. Our experiment has shown that our method is better than neural network based face detection method in detection time and accuracy.

6. A Histogram based New Approach of Eye Detection for Face Identification (6 pages, DOC, 320KB)


Eye detection is the most important and critical task of face detection. In this paper, we propose a new approach of eye detection by using gray histograms in eye candidate regions. We conducted our experiment with the 3500 face images which are captured from CCD camera under the varying condition of illumination, pose, and expression.

From the experiment result, it is shown that our approach is better than VPF based eye detection algorithm in detection time and accuracy.

7. Evaluation on the Space Efficiency of High-speed Digital Search Methods (4 pages, DOC, 224KB)


The HDS (high-speed digital search) method using the double array has been improved for operation time and storage space by several researchers. [1-3]. But most of the studies for improving HDS method did not make change on the basic condition for constructing double array. In [2], we have modified the equations as for the array CHECK, so that we could make a significant improvement on the storage space. In this paper, we evaluate on the space efficiency of our method in comparison with the one presented [2].

8. A High-speed Digital Search Algorithm by an Improved Double Array (5 pages, DOC, 476KB)


The HDS (high-speed digital search) method based on trie-memory structure, first presented by E. Fredkin in 1960[1], has been developed into an efficient and practical retrieval method using the double array by Johnson and Aoe, who improved the array structure of the original method.[2][3][5] As its time efficiency and its space efficiency, HDS method is widely used in many areas such as bibliographic search, language analysis and speech recognition. Since Aoe first proposed the HDS method using double array, a number of improvement on the HDS method has been presented. [5-6]. In the previous study on HDS method, researchers used the original condition for constructing double array, without any change. In this paper, we modify the second equation in the condition for constructing double array so that we can reduce the size of the space for every one element of the array CHECK to |I|, where I is the set of input symbols. We give the high-speed digital search algorithm by an improved Double array.

          Pyongyang Patent & Trademark Agency (PPTA) 


Pyongyang Patent & Trademark Agency (PPTA) is the oldest and largest IP law firm in the DPR Korea. 

 It first appeared as the founder of the intellectual property(IP) profession in our country with establishing on the 23 March 1982. There is our country's accession to several international treaties and conventions relating to the IP in the period between 1974 and 1980 in the background of the establishing.

At present it is the largest leading IP law firm in the country, having more than 120 staffs and sophisticated business equipments. It is representing a host of clients ranging from individual inventors to world giant multinationals from some 70 jurisdictions. Typically about 60 per cent of the IP cases in the DPR Korea are handled every day by PPTA. Dr. Li Yong, newly appointed our director general, is strongly accomplishing his own creative idea for activation of business. The the idea covers wide area including agencies in the fields of joint adventure, finance and accounts as well as the IP and service offering technical information and program products for office process.   

The firm is just a mix of experienced veterans who have established the current IP practice standards and ardent young people who want to go always ahead. Their very professionalism combined with high spirit of innovation constitutes the firm's cutting edge enabling PPTA to enjoy continued good will with their clients. They take it as their mission to make better IP world in cooperation with colleagues and clients. 

Agency Data
Agency Name  Pyongyang Patent and Trademark Agency
Date of Establishment  23 March 1982


Main Office  - Post: P.O.Box 6, Pyongyang, DPR Korea
 - Courier: Sungri St. 3-7, Central District, Pyongyang, DPR Korea
 - Fax: 850-2-381-4021
 - Tel: Int. Operator 00850-2-18-222, -444, -888
             Extension No. 381-8387
Branch Office  -Post:  1-3-39, Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 154-0004, Japan
 - Fax: +81-3-5486-7646
 - Tel: +81-3-5486-5171
 - E-Mail:
Kinds of business  - IP-relevant agency
 - Joint-venture agency
 - Financial and account agency
 - technology  transfer
Director General   Dr. Li Yong
The total Number of Staffs  Over 120 members

History of our Agency

- Pyongyang Patent & Trademark Agency as the only IP-relevant firm in the period of 1982 to 1993.

(1) The first stage(1982-1985): Foundation stage

. Making a fundamental framework for the business (Initial member: 8 members)
. Making various forms and amounting fees
. Application case number in 1982: Patent-4 cases, Trademark-10 cases
. Practical contacts with Several agencies in Eastern Europe and WIPO

(2) The second stage(1986-1994): Specialization stage

. Reorganization of set ups
. Deciding work tasks of our agency
. Structuring material foundation and warming up of agency business

(3) The third stage(1995-): Modernization stage

. Completion of set ups
. Enlargement of business
. Continuous enforcement of material foundation