Donate for the Cryptome collection of files from June 1996 to the present

30 November 2002. Thanks to R, updated to show Marine One station at Anacostia Naval Station across the river from Washington DC.

Presidential Helicopter
Marine One Station
Anacostia Naval Station

The perimeter double security fence and patrol road are similar to those of Air Force One base:
And similar as well to perimeter fencing at nuclear weapon storage areas:

23 November 2002. One of the Eyeball series.
Source of maps and photos: (color) and TerraServer USGS 17 Mar 1994 (monochrome).

Marine Helicopter Squadron One:

Whenever the President of the United States is transported by
helicopter, it is in a Sikorsky VH-3D(top) or VH-60N(bottom).


From John Pike's Global Security:


Marine Helicopter Squadron-1 (HMX-1) is the only organization responsible for direct helicopter support of the White House. HMX-1 is the sole helicopter transport squadron for the president of the United States, and stands alone in its role of testing and evaluating helicopter systems for the Fleet Marine Force. Unlike any other unit in the Marine Corps, HMX-1 has three distinct chains of command. The Marine Corps Deputy Chief of Staff for Aviation issues orders for all tasks that HMX-1 executes in conjunction with Marine Corps activities, while the White House Military Office directs the squadron’s presidential missions. The squadron’s OT&E Department reports to Commander, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, Norfolk, VA.

HMX-1’s greatest distinction may be its special place in history as the first U.S. Marine Corps helicopter squadron ever established. The establishment of HMX-1 at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Quantico, Va., on 01 December 1947 started a revolution in Marine Corps aviation and tactical doctrine. On 23 May 1948, the first airborne ship-to-shore movement began at Onslow Beach, Camp Lejeune, N.C. The first wave of the assault commenced with all five HO3S-1s taking off from Palau and arriving 30 minutes later in the land-ing zone. HMX-1 pilots made continuous flights, putting 66 Marines in the right place at the right time. With the helicopter firmly entrenched in Marine warfighting doctrine, HMX-1’s mission evolved into developmental testing of new helicopter systems and products destined for the Fleet Marine Force.

With over 700 personnel assigned, HMX-1 is the largest permanently formed aircraft squadron in the Marine Corps. Accordingly, it incorporates some departments not usually found in a squadron. As the only aviation unit assigned to MCAF Quantico, HMX-1 has a dedicated fiscal and aviation supply department, and its safety and standardization department is similar to that found in a composite helicopter squadron with several different types of aircraft. The major divisions within the unit are: Administration, Operations, Logistics, Safety & Standardization, White House Liaison Office, Executive Alert Facility, Plans, Security, Communications, Fiscal, Aviation Supply, Operational Test & Evaluation, Whiteside and Greenside. HMX-1 responds directly to the White House Military Office (WHMO) for Distinguished Visitor (DV) Code 1 and Code 2 helicopter support taskings. HMX-1 does not have secondary tasking authority; if it requires fixed wing or helicopter general support aircraft as it carries out its direct support tasking, it requests that support from WHMO. WHMO procedures are to pass such secondary taskings to appropriate authorities in DoD.

In addition to its executive transport and OT&E missions, HMX-1 also supports the Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) at Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF), Quantico in the development of helicopter tactics and techniques. HMX-1’s CH-46Es and CH-53Es provide helicopter indoctrination training for new combat ground Marines and support advanced training, such as fast-roping exercises. MCCDC maintains a training facility called “Combat Town,” where HMX-1 Marines participate in the training of assault troops in hostage rescue scenarios.

During Presidential support missions, HMX-1 often requires Air Mobility Command (AMC) fixed wing support, the Phoenix Banner missions. For overseas Presidential trips, HMX-1 flies VH-3D or VH-60N helicopters to Andrews AFB, Maryland where C-5 strategic airlifters can transport them to a forward operating base. Up to three aircraft can be lifted in a C-5B. For such long distance missions, HMX-1 would also require airlift for its logistics and personnel. Fixed wing support normally entails flights to and from military air bases or civil airports with major runways and substantial ground support facilities, including instrument flight navigation aids. At the forward operating base, helicopters transported by C-5B must be reassembled and conduct post-maintenance inspection flights as well as a five hours "penalty" flight to ensure safe materiel condition. At all forward bases, helicopters tasked for actual missions must conduct exact rehearsals one day prior to the Presidential lift.

VH-60N White Hawk Serial Numbers
Version 1.0


September 2001




This Navy Training Systems Plan provides an estimate of manpower, personnel, and training requirements to support the employment concepts currently in use for the VH-60N Helicopter. The VH-60N has been in use for approximately 12 years and is a helicopter transport for the President of the United States, Vice President, and other visiting heads of state. It has seating provisions for 10 passengers and an aircrew, which consists of a pilot, co-pilot, crewchief, and a communication system operator. As an executive transport, it has an interior suitable for executive travel and receives extensive care and maintenance exceeding normal standards to keep the aircraft in superior condition. The VH-60N can be prepared for loading and storage onto an Air Force C-5A/B, and C-17, allowing for transport on short notice. It is also capable of being loaded onto an Air Force C-130 and C-141. Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1), is the sole helicopter support for executive transport throughout the United States and overseas.

VH-60N is in the Operations and Support phase of the Defense Acquisition System. The VH-60N is expected to remain in service until the year 2015, after which a determination will be made whether it should undergo a Service Life Extension Program, which could potentially extend it’s life to the year 2025. Naval Air System Command (NAVAIRSYSCOM) contracts for instruction of pilots, communication system operators, and maintenance personnel at the squadron in HMX-1 Quantico, Virginia for the VH-60N. No specific military aircrew or maintenance training exists for the VH-60N.


1. Operational Concept. The, VH-60N has been in operation for approximately 12 years and is designed as an executive transport. The aircrew consists of a pilot, co-pilot, communications system operator, and crewchief. When on a mission, the detachment is completely self-contained, supported by dedicated aircrew, maintenance, technical representatives, security personnel and logistics. In addition to its Executive air support role, it also provides support for emergency evacuation, development of new systems, and training of new helicopter tactics.

2. Maintenance Concept. The Maintenance Concept for the VH-60N is based on three levels of maintenance as stated in the Naval Maintenance Program Manual, Office of Chief of Naval Operations Instructions (OPNAVINST) 4790 series, organizational, intermediate, and depot. Maintenance at Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1) is organized into two separate departments, the Executive Aircraft Maintenance and United States Marine Corps (USMC) Aircraft Maintenance. The Executive Aircraft Maintenance also known as "Whiteside” or “Cage” maintenance will be referred to as the Whiteside in this document. The USMC Maintenance Aircraft Department, also known as the “Greenside” or “Stake” maintenance will be referred to as the Greenside in this document. The Whiteside maintenance department maintains the VH-60N.

a. Organizational. The organizational level maintenance consists of those maintenance actions normally performed by an operating activity in support of its day-to-day operations. Due to the highly structured missions of executive transport, aircraft configuration is tightly controlled.
(1) Preventive Maintenance. Preventive Maintenance consists of scheduled inspections and servicing at specific intervals as required by the applicable Maintenance Requirements Cards (MRC) procedures and is performed by the Squadron’s Flight Line, Airframe, and Avionics Maintenance personnel. For the VH-60N, these inspections are performed in four phases after every 150 hours of flight. Preventive actions performed on the aircraft include corrosion inspection, wiping down the outside of the aircraft by hand after each flight regardless of flight time, lubrication and servicing, and daily/turnaround and special inspections.

(2) Corrective Maintenance. Corrective Maintenance is unscheduled and consists of fault isolation, repair, and replacement of components when verified as faulty. Built-In Test or test sets are used on the appropriate systems to determine if certain parts or assemblies are in need of repair or replacement. The Squadron’s Flight Line, Airframe, and Avionics Maintenance Personnel perform these actions.

b. Intermediate. Intermediate level maintenance is performed on those Weapon Replacement Assemblies and Shop Replaceable Assemblies beyond the capability of the organizational maintenance level activity. These assemblies are more specialized and complex requiring a higher level of skill to repair the faulty component. Limited intermediate level maintenance support is provided for non-flight critical items. A local, intermediate component, repair list is published detailing components that are test and check, limited repair, or repaired at the intermediate level. Facilities at Naval Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River, Maryland are used for selected VH-60N avionics. Component repairs beyond the capabilities of this facility are forwarded to the appropriate contracted Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). The intermediate level, engine shop in the Whiteside facility performs maintenance functions on T-700 engines and T62 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and assists in organizational level tasks performed by other shops. Components and assemblies requiring maintenance above the capabilities of the squadron are sent to OEM facilities for repair. Replacement parts are acquired from the contracted OEM. Special clearances and inspection processes are in place to maintain the security of VH components and the integrity of the closed loop VH supply system.

c. Depot. Depot level maintenance consists of major overhaul of the aircraft or the rebuilding, manufacture, and modification of parts, assemblies, and subassemblies beyond the capabilities of the Intermediate Maintenance Activity. Scheduled depot maintenance, occurs at the expiration of 28 months or 2,400 flight hours, whichever comes first, and is accomplished by the OEM.

d. Interim Maintenance. NA

e. Life-Cycle Maintenance Plan. The plan requires that the VH-60N undergoes a Special Progressive Aircraft Rework (SPAR) every 1,600 hours flight time or 30 months, whichever comes first. SPAR is an enhanced version of the Standard Depot Level Maintenance and includes partial disassembly of the airframe, replacement of components, refurbishment of interior furnishings, and repainting the aircraft. The requirements are outlined in the revised SPAR Specification Manual in accordance with Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIRSYSCOM) Instruction 4710.1. The VH-60N has a service life of 10,000 flight hours and will remain in service until approximately 2015. A determination will be made whether to place the VH-60N under Service Life Extension Program, which could extend the lifetime of the helicopter.

3. Manning Concept. HMX-1 is the largest permanently formed aircraft squadron in the Marine Corps. The major divisions within the unit encompass: Administration, Operations, Logistics, Department of Safety and Standardization (DSS), White House Liaison Office, Executive Alert Facility, Plans, Security, Communications, Fiscal, Aviation Supply, Operational Test & Evaluation, Whiteside, and Greenside. Specific Military Occupational Specialties (MOSs) do not exist for the VH-60N since the training is done by a contractor, rather than the military. Personnel assigned to operate and maintain the VH-60N, are selected from the population of marine forces, aviation maintenance personnel and do not have any previous experience on the platform. Personnel are specifically recruited for HMX-1 and spend approximately one year on the Greenside while intensive.background investigations are conducted by the appropriate Department of Defense agency. Once personnel are given appropriate clearance and access they are eligible for transfer to the Whiteside.

The number of detachments varies according to the number of missions. Each detachment is self-contained and supported by dedicated aircrew, maintenance, technical representatives, security personnel and logistics for the duration of the event in compliance with the Standard Operating Procedures in the Whiteside Trip Leader Manual.

                             FISCAL YEAR 2002

The following helicopter hourly rates are effective October 1, 2001 and are to be
used when helicopters are provided on a reimbursable basis.

          Other DoD  Other                 All
          Component  Federal    FMS        Other
Type      User Rate  User Rate  User Rate  User Rate


UH-60A      1,912     2,083      2,083      2,166
UH-3H       3,198     3,362      3,362      3,496
VH-3D*      7,542     7,706      7,706      8,014
VH-60N*     5,954     6,118      6,118      6,363

* Other than within the Department of Defense, VH-3D and VH-60N helicopters
currently are used only in support of the Executive Branch as directed by the
White House Military Office. Should such helicopters be used on a reimbursable
basis, prior written approval must be obtained from the Under Secretary of Defense
(Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer regarding the rate to be charged.



USGS photo 17 Mar 1994

USGS photo 17 Mar 1994

USGS photo 17 Mar 1994

USGS topo 1 Jul 1983

USGS photo 17 Mar 1994