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7 November 2006

See also:

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Kursk Nuclear Power Plant
Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant
Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant
St Petersburg Nuclear Power Plant (formerly Leningrad)


Russia: Ozersk (Chelyabinsk-65)

Mayak Production Association Archived Developments
Mayak Chemical Combine
Production reactors
Fissile Material Component Fabrication Plant
Reprocessing Facilities: RT-1 Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility Radioisotope Plant Plant B Plant BB Archived Spent Fuel Developments
MOX Fuel Production Facilities Archived MOX Fuel Developments
Fissile Material Storage Facility Archived FMSF Developments
Vitrification Plant Archived Radioactive Waste Developments
Chelyabinsk-60 Research Facility
South Urals Nuclear Power Plant

For major recent developments, see the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Developments file.

Ozersk Overview

The closed city of Ozersk, formerly Chelyabinsk-65, is the location of the Mayak Production Association (PO Mayak). Construction of the closed city began in 1945 and in 1948 the first reactor (Reactor A) at PO Mayak became operational. Ozersk is located approximately 70km north of Chelyabinsk. The population of Ozersk is approximately 85,000, with the estimated number of employees at PO Mayak ranging from 12,000 to 17,000 people.[1,2,3].



Ozersk, formerly Chelyabinsk-65 (previously known as Chelyabinsk-40)
Address: 31 Prospekt Lenina, Ozersk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, 456065
Telephone: (35151) 31659
Fax: (35151) 33826

[PO Mayak homepage,] {Entered 6/8/00 FW, Updated 11/9/2000 GD}

HOMEPAGES:, {updated 6/8/00 FW, SS}

SUBORDINATION: Federal Atomic Energy Agency


The Mayak Production Association incorporates the Mayak Chemical Combine (consisting of production reactors, a fissile material component fabrication plant, reprocessing facilities, MOX fuel production facilities, a vitrification plant, and fissile material storage facility); the Chelyabinsk-60 Research Facility, and the still under construction South Urals Nuclear Power Plant.

[Nuclear Business Directory, (Moscow: 1995), p. 91.]


The Mayak Production Association, known informally as Mayak, fabricates plutonium and HEU pits and produces tritium for the Russian nuclear weapons program.[1,7]. It is also the only Russian facility that reprocesses spent nuclear fuel from nuclear submarines, icebreakers, and from Russian and Soviet-made nuclear power reactors.[8] As of 1987, Mayak employed approximately 20,000 people.[2] According to the 2000 edition of the Nuclear Business Directory, the number of employees has fallen to 15,000.[6] In November 2001, Mayak employed nearly 14,500 people, 36% of whom were women, 16% were young specialists under 30. Twenty-five percent of the personnel had higher education.[10]

Mayak facilities include plutonium and tritium production reactors; fuel reprocessing facilities; a plutonium processing, finishing, and component manufacturing plant (Plant 20); mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication plants; and nuclear waste treatment and storage facilities.[1] All five of the plant's uranium-graphite plutonium production reactors have been permanently shut down.[3] Two tritium-producing reactors (Ruslan and Lyudmila) are still in operation. They also produce a wide range of radioactive isotopes.[6] Mayak is also one of the two principal storage sites for HEU and plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons (the second storage site is at SKhK).[7] In addition, Mayak has a reactor-grade plutonium stockpile of approximately 30MT that has accumulated from its civil reprocessing program,[3,5] although, accounting for a 1MT annual increase in stocks, the movement "For Nuclear Safety" puts the figure at 40MT.[5] Mayak is involved in the oxidation and purification of HEU from dismantled nuclear warheads under the US-Russia HEU Agreement.[9] Mayak is one of the few enterprises that is allowed to produce and sell radioisotopes.[2] As of March 2000, Russian Federation government orders comprised less than 30 percent of Mayak's production.[4] Mayak activities also include conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into MOX fuel, production of uranium dioxide, modernization of the RT-1 spent fuel reprocessing plant, manufacture of electric devices and control and monitoring equipment for pipelines.[10]

This facility may be compared to those in the US:

And those in the United Kingdom:

Russian Ozersk Nuclear Complex

Looking Northwest

Looking Southeast

Selected facilities shown below are enclosed with high-security perimeter fencing similar to nuclear weapon facilities in the US and worldwide.

A related nuclear production reactor facility.