8 February 1999
Source: http://www.hanscom.af.mil/Orgs/Spo/IC/icihome/products/testbed/cigsstb.htm

Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS) Testbed Program

The Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS) Testbed Program provides the airborne reconnaissance community a transportable evaluation laboratory to support development of the CIGSS architecture. The CIGSS Testbed Program includes provisions for continuous upgrades, such as the Common Imagery Processor (CIP), to reflect the evolutionary nature of CIGSS systems. ESC/ICI (RIGS PGM) is the executive agent for DARO and manages the acquisition, sustainment, upgrade, and operation of the CIGSS Testbed.

The CIGSS Testbed provides the equipment to interface with airborne sensor platforms, process sensor and auxiliary data, and provide processed imagery in National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) 2.0. Currently, the CIGSS Testbed is capable of accepting (via data link or mission tape player) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) video phase history data, EO sensor data, IR sensor data, sensor auxiliary data, and platform navigational data from either Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS-2) or Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) sensors.

This document describes:

1.0 Equipment

The CIGSS Testbed equipment includes:

1.1 EO/IR Processor

The EO/IR processor equipment processes the digital EO (Electro-Optical) and IR (Infrared) pixel data received from the Formatter into a form appropriate for subsequent reduced resolution image set generation, compression, and storage using the archive recorder. The EO/IR processor accepts inputs of up to 12 bits per pixel and provides outputs of up to 11 bits per pixel. Pixel selection for 12 bit input is either the first 11 bits per pixel or is operator selectable.

The EO/IR processor outputs sensor imagery to the Formatters for archival storage and for transmission to the users. The EO/IR processor is sized (with interfaces and controls) to accommodate three decompression techniques (currently only the DPCM (decompression technique is supported).

1.2 Common Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor (CSARP)

The CSARP is installed in the CIGSS Testbed trailer and supports processing of the ASARS-2 SAR data.

The CSARP provides the capability to receive and process video phase history data input directly from the Formatters in real-time or in tape playback mode. The CSARP processes the data through appropriate range and azimuth compression techniques, and produces digital imagery data as its output. Fixed Target Imaging data is output to the Formatters in contiguous lines of imagery such that the azimuth and range lines are parallel and orthogonal to the swath centerline defined by the entry point and the exit point.

1.3 Tape Cassette Recorders (TCRs)

Three mission TCRs, two Schlumberger ANSI-ID1 and one Ampex DCRsi, provide the capability to play mission tapes recorded on airborne sensor platforms and record and play back mission imagery and data received over the data link. For the Schlumberger TCRs, when the input exceeds the capacity of one tape cassette, recording can be switched to the other with minimal data loss.

Each Schlumberger mission TCR is capable of:

The Ampex TCR is capable of:

The Schlumberger archive TCR is identical to the Schlumberger mission TCRs, however, the data is stored in compressed FAF blocks in the Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) common format.

The Schlumberger TCRs are capable of recording one auxiliary digital data track on a 19 mm magnetic tape in longitudinal format at 5.5 kbpi. A third track for servo control is recorded as detailed in ANSI X3.175-1900. Schlumberger TCR operations include search, record, and reproduce. Tapes can be searched in both forward and reverse directions. Tapes can be reproduced at any of the available data rates (260 Mb/s, 130 Mb/s, 64 Mb/s, 32 Mb/s, and 10 Mb/s) not to exceed 35 Mp/s.

1.4 Common Data Link (CDL) Equipment

The data link equipment receives the data link signal from the sensor platform and demodulates the data for use by the CIGSS Testbed processing equipment. The data link operates in both X and Ku band and is capable of receiving data at 10.71, 137, and 274 Mb/s. The data link is the Modularized Interoperable Surface Terminal (MIST) data. The MIST, the surface resident portion of a digital communications system, provides full duplex communications between the CIGSS Testbed and a remote airborne platform.

The equipment, which includes the antennas, receivers, transmitters, and other items comprising the data link ground station, is configured in four different equipment groups: link equipment, operator equipment, enclosure equipment, and surface antenna equipment. The link and operator equipment groups are located in the CIGSS Testbed trailer. The enclosure equipment and surface antenna equipment groups are in a separate trailer that can be located up to 200 feet away.

1.5 Formatters

The formatters accept inputs from the data link and the mission tape recorders and provide output to the mission and archive tape recorders, EO/IR processor, CSARP, and the control computer. The Formatters direct input from the data link to one of the mission tape recorders for real-time recording of sensor and support data and provide bi-directional data and control interfaces to the EO/IR and SAR processors.

The formatters provide the capability to:

1.6 Control Computer

The VAX 3500 Control Computer is the control and status monitoring station for operations and for managing resources. The Control Computer provides:

1.7 CIGSS Workstation

The COTS CIGSS workstation is a Silicon Graphics (SGI) Onyx and provides the capability to screen and exploit imagery, convert processed imagery to NITF 2.0 format, and generate reports. The workstation is connected to commercial FDDI and Ethernet LANs to facilitate testing with commercial products.

1.8 Imagery Product Archive (IPA)

1.10 Data and Imagery LANs

The Data LAN supports the transfer of messages and support data from the Control Computer to the CIGSS Workstation. The Data LAN is a 10 Mb/s Ethernet-based transmission network. The Imagery LAN supports the transfer of imagery from the Formatter to CIGSS Workstation. The Imagery LAN is a Fiber Distributed Digital Interface (FDDI) based LAN.

1.11 Air-Ground-Air Radios

Two air-ground-air radios provide two way secure voice communications with the manned airborne platforms. Included are standard tactical VHF/UHF and HF secure radio communication capabilities. The equipment consists of:

1.12 Power and Cooling Equipment

The CIGSS Testbed has an Internal Power Distribution Unit (IPDU) in addition to the external PDU and Environmental Control Units (ECU) on the support trailer. The ECU has a cooling capacity of 180, 000 BTU to maintain an inside aisle operating temperature of 86°F and closed loop cooling of 55°F when the maximum ambient outside temperature is 95°F.


1.13 Test Equipment

The testbed includes test equipment to support analysis of data. The following is provided with the testbed:

2.0 Interfaces

2.1 Common Data Link (CDL)

The data link is functionally compatible with the down-link and up-link wave forms as specified in the MIST data link External ICD (S7633603B). The interface point is the CIGSS Testbed antenna for RF propagation.

2.2 Magnetic mission tapes

The CIGSS accepts recorded magnetic mission tapes containing sensor and platform auxiliary data in the following formats:

2.3 Radios

The CIGSS testbed has the capability for secure voice communications with a sensor aircraft via VHF/UHF and HF radios. Cryptos are provided with the communications radios to allow secure transmissions. It will be the responsibility of the Host organization to provide COMSEC keying material in order to use them in secure mode.

3.0 Operational Support & Site Requirements

3.1 Personnel

The CIGSS Testbed personnel provide the following support:

3.2 Space

The total space needed, see Figure 1, covers :

3.3 Security

The CIGSS Testbed is a Collateral Secret facility. Therefore, the space provided for the testbed will need to support Collateral Secret operations (e.g., the area will need to be fenced). Collateral Secret storage is provided within the CIGSS Testbed trailer.

Crypto keying material will need to be provided as the Testbed does not carry COMSEC keying material for the datalink cryptos. Keying material for the STU L20, KYV 5, KY 58, and KG45 will be required to support secure communications.

3.4 Power

The CIGSS Testbed uses 208/120 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3 phase, 5 wire service. There is a separate power source with EMI filtering for the MIST enclosure equipment group which powers the surface antenna which uses 120/208 VAC 50/60 Hz, 3 phase, 4 wire service with a 6 kW maximum.

The total power requirements for the testbed are 104.39 kilowatts (with a .8 power factor this is 130 kva). See Figure 2.

3.5 Miscellaneous Siting Requirements

In addition, the CIGSS Testbed requires water be provided at a rate of less than 35 psi to control the humidity within the trailer for magnetic tape storage. A requirement exists for the Site to provide two phone lines to the Site and to include commercial access, i.e. outside line. One phone line is for communications with the pilot or Test Center and one is for access to maintenance and operations support personnel.

4.0 Deployment Support

4.1 Transport

Testbed tear-down, set-up, and transport requirements will be coordinated with the user. Testbed support personnel will be responsible for planning and conducting tear-down, set-up, and transport of the Testbed. Required user support will be documented in the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). The CIGSS Testbed equipment is C-130 transportable with roller wheels located such that the trailers could be backed into the cargo bay while the front end is raised by the built-in hydralic leveling system.

The CIGSS Testbed resides in a 38 foot modified open gooseneck commercial utility trailer that is suitable for road transport and can be setup for towing with commercial or military prime movers. The gross vehicle weight rating is 22,000 pounds with a gross weight of 20,515 pounds. The trailer has tandem 10,000 pound torsion axles with air/hydralic brakes. A 24 to 12 volt dc adapter is provided for military prime movers.

The CDL enclosure and surface antenna equipment use an M794 trailer which requires a military prime mover because a pintal hook hitch is required. A one ton or larger prime mover with proper air/hydraulic breaks is required. For towing, the speed is limited to 45 MPH regardless of on or off road use.

A third prime mover is needed for the 38 foot modified open gooseneck commercial PDU and ECU trailer. The trailer with spares and support equipment weighs 19,000 pounds and requires at least 224 square feet. The Testbed and PDU & ECU prime moving equipment can be military, commercial, and may be borrowed, rented, or bought.

5.0 Maintenance Concept

Daily maintenance of the CIGSS Testbed will be done by Testbed operation support personnel. All other maintenance is handled on a case-by-case basis and is covered by designated contractors that are called in as needed by Testbed personnel.

5.1 Hardware

Hardware maintenance will be done by Testbed personnel using:

5.2 Software

Software maintenance is handled by Testbed operation support personnel with the exception of proprietary suppliers who will be covered under separate contact as needed.

6.0 Training

As indicated under Operational Support, operations and maintenance training is the responsibility of operational support personnel. Upon the completion of the Phase I, at least one ESC support person will be trained in CIGSS Testbed operations and maintenance and can act as a trainer for the additional operational support personnel.


Figure 1 - Testbed Layout

Figure 2 - Power and Grounding Requirements