23 April 1997
The Annual Report to the President and the Congress, commonly referred to as the Annual Defense Report, details how the Department of Defense built its capabilities and is working to maintain them in the future. In addition to fulfilling a statutory requirement, specifically U.S.C. Title 10, the Secretary of Defense's Annual Defense Report is widely distributed and serves as a basic reference document for those interested in national defense issues and programs. So that it may be presented in an open forum, this report is unclassified.
For the past several years, Congress has expressed concerns about the Department's organization and management of space activities. These concerns involved the basic processes governing defense and intelligence space programs and spanned policy, resources, requirements, acquisition, operations, training, and support to the warfighter.
In response to Congress's concerns, the Department conducted a review of space organization and management that involved the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff, defense agencies, the Services, and the Intelligence Community. The review addressed the complete range of national security space activities, including the Department's relationship to the Intelligence Community, and resulted in a series of management initiatives. DoD is taking a two-step approach to the management of national security space activities. The first step is to improve the integration and coordination of all DoD space activities. The second step involves improving the integration and coordination of defense and intelligence space activities.
DOD MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES
DoD has consolidated space responsibilities and functions within the Office of the Secretary of Defense into a single new organization under a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Space (DUSD(Space)), who reports directly to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (USD(A&T)). The DUSD(Space) serves as the principal staff assistant and advisor for space matters with responsibility for DoD space policy, as well as oversight of space architectures and acquisition programs. In this capacity, the DUSD (Space) is responsible for interfacing with U.S. government agencies and Congress, and for representing the Secretary of Defense at all interagency deliberations and international negotiations regarding space matters.
Certain space-related responsibilities and functions will be shared between the DUSD(Space), the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (ASD(C3I)), and the Director, Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E). The DUSD(Space) is responsible for DoD policy and planning guidance for space activities including military uses of national space systems, while the ASD(C3I) is responsible for DoD policy for functional C3I activities. The DUSD(Space) oversees the development of an integrated DoD space architecture, while the ASD(C3I) is responsible for the Department's functional C3I architecture.
The DUSD(Space) is also responsible for oversight of space acquisition programs and, in general, shares with the ASD(C3I) responsibility for oversight of space system user equipment. Such shared oversight responsibility may transition from the ASD(C3I) to the DUSD(Space) on an exception basis at Milestone Zero of the defense acquisition process. The DUSD(Space) will have lead responsibility for oversight of mission and user equipment for space systems (e.g., Milstar and Global Positioning System), where changes to such equipment would significantly affect the space segment, or in cases where such equipment will be acquired only in small numbers. With respect to space technology, the DUSD(Space) is responsible for assessing future space systems requirements and recommending changes to space-specific technology goals to DDR&E. DDR&E is responsible for all DoD science and technology activities.
In addition to providing a DoD focal point for space matters, the consolidation of space oversight responsibilities within OSD facilitates the streamlining of the Department's space policy and acquisition decision making processes. Acquisition reform initiatives will apply to space acquisition matters. The Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) structure has been augmented by a space Overarching Integrated Product Team (OIPT) which supports the board by reviewing major space systems acquisition programs. Integrated Product Teams will support the DAB and Space OIPT's reviews of major defense acquisition programs. The Integrated Product Teams represent an integrated approach to addressing issues by involving all stakeholders early in the process.
The Department's existing planning, programming, and budgeting system process has not been changed. DoD has established subactivity codes in the OSD Budget Review System to identify and track funds for all space resources. This will facilitate better management of the Department's resources for space activities and provide Congress greater visibility into the funding for such activities.
The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chiefs of Staff of the Services (or equivalent) will review and validate military requirements for intelligence through the Joint Requirements Oversight Council process. These requirements will then be passed to the Director of Central Intelligence to be aggregated with other intelligence requirements. This will help improve the definition of military requirements to be satisfied by the development, acquisition, operation, and use of airborne and space-based reconnaissance systems.
The Department will retain a decentralized structure for the acquisition of space programs with existing lines of authority in accordance with Title 10, U.S.C. There will be a presumption that the Air Force will be assigned responsibility for the acquisition of DoD multi-user space programs. If another Service believes it is better able to execute that responsibility for a particular program, it will have the opportunity to make its case to the Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE), who will assign responsibility for the program. Acquisition responsibility for Service-unique space programs, which may include ground terminals and other user equipment, will remain with each Service.
Finally, the Department has established a Space Architect organization, which is responsible for developing an integrated defense space architecture and coordinating that architecture with counterparts in the Intelligence Community. The DoD Space Architect function is administratively attached to the Air Force with the office director an 0-8 flag officer. The DoD Space Architect reports to the DAE through the Air Force Acquisition Executive for a two-year tour. The Architect's staff is comprised of representatives from the Services and Defense Agencies.
The DoD Space Architect is tasked to develop space architectures across the range of the DoD space mission areas and integrate validated requirements into existing and planned space system architectures. The first priorities will be to develop both, in coordination with the Intelligence Community, a future Military Satellite Communications architecture, which encompasses core DoD capabilities and civil and commercial augmentation capabilities, and a space control architecture.
DOD/INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE
The second step in DoD's approach to the management of national security space operations involves improving the integration and coordination of defense and intelligence space activities. This step is essential to address the fundamental concerns expressed by Congress and the independent Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces about space organization and management. Besides the joint reviews currently conducted by the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence, the Joint Space Management Board (JSMB) has been established as a forum for senior management to address defense and intelligence space policy, acquisition, architecture, funding, and related issues.
The JSMB was formed to ensure that defense and intelligence needs for space systems (including associated ground-based subsystems) are satisfied within available resources, using integrated architectures to the maximum extent possible. The JSMB integrates policy, requirements, architectures, acquisition, and funding for defense and intelligence space programs. The JSMB also provides executive management for defense and intelligence space programs and oversight of the single National Security Space Architect, which will be formed through an eventual consolidation of the defense and intelligence space architecture functions.
The JSMB is co-chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology and the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence. The Executive Committee of the JSMB, vested with the full authority to act for the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence, within the bounds of the charter, includes the co-chairs, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Executive Director, Intelligence Community Affairs.
The Department's space management and organizational initiatives have directly addressed the concerns expressed by Congress and the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces. The implementation of these initiatives will improve DoD space management and the integration and coordination of defense and intelligence space activities.
[End Chapter 11]
For related information see:
DoD Space Communications Architecture: http://jya.com/scarch.htm
DoD Space Architect: http://jya.com/dodsa.htm
Article on "The Ambivalence of Space Technology": http://jya.com/spacetek.txt