J.P.Bowen@reading.ac.uk if you know of relevant on-line information
not included here.
This document contains pointers to information on
Safety-Critical Systems available around the world on the
World Wide Web
(WWW), the global hypermedia system providing
worldwide information. Information
on the following is available:
and mailing lists
indicates new information.
indicates (subjectively) recommended information.
BibTeX bibliographic database of publications of relevance to safety-critical
systems (second sourced in the
US). A revised
version of the bibliography is
NASA Langley formal methods
program including many applications to safety-critical systems.
At the Software Engineering Institute,
Carnegie-Mellon University, there is an archive of information relevant to
dependable software including
file. There is an associated
mailing list. Contact Charles Weinstock on
further information. Messages for the list should be sent to
email@example.com) of the
High Integrity Systems Engineering
Group (HISE), Department of
Computer Science, University of York,
UK, runs a
mailing list forum. To join the mailing list, send a short message expressing
your interests and expertise in the subject to
firstname.lastname@example.org. To send messages
to the list, email
past messages is maintained. In addition,
HISE reports are available.
including around 2,500 references in compressed
refer formats (see
README file) is available. Email
email@example.com with updates, etc.
An archive of aviation
information especially with respect to fly-by-wire aircraft such as the
Airbus A320 and the Boeing 777 is available. For example, see the plot of
aviation safety size of software packages of various avionics implementations
over the years. This archive is maintained by Robert Dorsett,
The Center for High Assurance
Computing Systems at Information Technology Division of the
Laboratory conducts interdisciplinary research and development in techniques
for processing and communicating data that preserve critical system properties
such as safety.
The ESPRIT ProCoS and
Basic Research projects are
investigating techniques concerned with improvements for safety-critical
The Experimental Computation
Laboratory is an organization in the
Computer Science Department at the University
of Missouri - Rolla dedicated to research in advanced methods in distributed
and parallel computation. The current focus is on the use of rigorous mathematics
through formal methods to
create fault-tolerant and secure real-time distributed computing systems.
The High Integrity Systems
Engineering Group (University of York, UK) undertakes research into all
aspects of high integrity computer-based systems, including the
dedicated to the production of a prototype Safety Argument Manager
search for information relating to safety via
Information on Software
Risk Management (including the
SEI Program on Software
Risk Management) and
Dependability from the Software Engineering
Institute, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
PDCS 2 (Predictably Dependable Computing Systems),
ProCoS II and
ProCoS-WG (Provably Correct Systems).
TTM/RTTL framework for real-time reactive programs and devices found
in embedded, safety-critical, or concurrent systems.
High Integrity Software System
Assurance (HISSA), NIST, USA.
Goddard Space Flight Center and
Johnson Space Center.
"safety critical" by Lycos.
publications from the IEE, UK.
Center for High Assurance Computer
Systems, Naval Research Laboratory, USA.
using SPARK ADA from DRA, UK.
Formal Methods Group,
Royal Holloway, University of London, UK. Dependable computing systems research.
Internet Disaster Information Network
- latest news on disaster situations.
Safety Critical Systems:
Review of recent Institution activity from the
IEE, UK. See
Guidance for engineers and Workshop report on
Formal methods and
their role in developing safe systems, 20 March 1995.
and Accidents with Fly-By-Wire Commercial Airplanes by
Prof Peter Ladkin,
with hyperlinks to RISKS articles.
The Aviation Disaster/Crash
Research project home page including a
Safety Bibliography and
safety links by
Prof. Nancy Leveson et al. at the University of Washington.
UK. Consultancy in the area of dependable systems, including
safety cases. See a useful
links, including standards.
Praxis Critical Systems, Bath,
Praxis specialises in all aspects of high-integrity systems. See
Engineering, an integrated approach to the design, development and
verification of complex software. Contact
for more information.
Air Accidents Investigation
Branch (AAIB), Department of Transport, UK.
Health and Safty Executive
ARIANE 5 Flight 501 Failure Report, 19 July 1996, from the
European Space Agency (ESA).
information from NASA
Office of Flight Assurance, USA.
MIL STD 882C, System Safety
Programme Requirements, US military safety standard. (See also
FAA Office of Regulation and
Certification, promoting safety standards, including the
Office of Accident
Investigation, from the US Federal Aviation
Administration. See the
Aviation Safety Program and recent
Systems information including a list of funded projects from the
EPSRC, UK. See also
Programme (1 October 1996).
to the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel, Executive Summary, High
Integrity Real-Time Software Working Party,
NPL, prepared under the auspices of the
Programme for Highly
Dependable Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Safety-Critical Systems Programme. See also a
listing of reports
and papers from the UK DTI/EPSRC-funded Safety Critical Systems R&D
Programme (in Word 6.0 format).
Analysis Group, UK. Developing new means of generating accident reports
using formal methods. See
Human Error and Systems Development, University of Glasgow, UK, 20-22
See also information on formal
methods which are often recommended for safety-critical systems.
Critical Systems Engineering course,
Integrated Graduate Development
Programme in Software Engineering, Oxford University, UK.
MSc in Safety Critical Systems Engineering, University of York, UK.
MSc in Safety-Critical Systems, Royal Holloway College, University of
Safety-Critical Systems Short Course,
Development programme, Imperial College,
Safety-Critical Systems Club (SCSC), UK. Enquiries should be
sent to Mrs. J. Atkinson on
( Centre for Software
Reliability, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK).
The club organizes the annual Safety-critical Systems
Symposium and produces a regular newsletter Safety Systems (Editor:
Felix Redmill, 22 Onslow Gardens, London N10 3JU; tel & fax: +1-181-883-0789,
no email!). See also
Network of Clubs for REliability and Safety of Software (ENCRESS),
sponsored by the ESSI Programme of the EC, including
information on meetings.
European Safety and Reliability Association.
General Secretariat: Apartado 1690, 1016 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Chairman:
D. Harvey, WS Atkins, Woodcote Grove, Ashley Road, Epsom, Surrey KT18 5BW,
UK (tel +44-1372-726140 x4604, fax +44-1372-740055). Associated with the
journal Reliability Engineering & System
TC7 (European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems, Technical
Committee 7) on Reliability, Safety and Security. An
ESRA Technical Committee since 1995. See
safety aspects of distributed
systems subgroup. Contact Robin Bloomfield on
firstname.lastname@example.org for further
Safety/Security Club, UK DTI-funded Safety
Policy and Models (SPaM) project. Email John Elliott on
No known on-line information is available from some of the above organizations.
Pointers would be gratefully received.
See also the French National Institute
for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS) in
English and French.
Methods in Safety-Critical Standards, Jonathan Bowen. In Proc.
1993 Software Engineering Standards Symposium (SESS'93), Brighton, UK,
30 August - 3 September 1993. IEEE Computer
Society Press, pp 168-177, 1993.
Systems, Formal Methods and Standards, Jonathan Bowen and Victoria
Software Engineering Journal, 8(4):189-209, July 1993. Previously
issued as a Programming Research Group Technical Report
PRG-TR-5-92. A revised version
is available as Chapter 1 in Towards
Verified Systems. Winner of the
Charles Babbage Premium award, 1994.
Industrial Take-up of Formal Methods in Safety-Critical and Other Areas:
A Perspective, Jonathan Bowen and Victoria Stavridou. In J.C.P.
Woodcock and P.G. Larsen (eds.), FME'93: Industrial-Strength Formal
Methods, First International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe, Odense,
Denmark, 19-23 April 1993, Springer-Verlag, LNCS 670, pp 183-195,
Methods and Software Safety, Jonathan Bowen and Victoria Stavridou.
In Heinz Frey (ed.), Safety of Computer Control Systems 1992
(SAFECOMP'92), Proc. IFAC Symposium, Zürich,
Switzerland, 28-30 October 1992, Pergamon Press, pp 93-98, 1992.
Methods for the Specification and Design of Real-Time Safety Critical
Systems, J. Ostroff. Journal of Systems and Software,
18(1):33-60, April 1992.
Software: Status Report and Annotated Bibliography, P. Place and
K. Kang. Technical Report CMU/SEI-93-TR-5,
Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, USA, 1993.
and Verification for Critical Systems: Tools, Achievements and
Prospects, John Rushby (SRI). In Electric Power Research Institute
TR-100294, pp 9-1 to 9-14, January 1991.
Formal Verification of Algorithms
for Critical Systems, John Rushby (SRI). IEEE Transactions on Software
Engineering, 19(1):113-233, January 1993.
Methods and the Certification of Critical Systems, John Rushby (SRI).
SRI Technical Report CSL-93-7, December 1993. (300 pages) See also
and their Role in the Certification of Critical Systems, John Rushby.
SRI Technical Report CSL-95-1, March 1995.
This is a shorter (50 pages) and less technical treatment of the material
in CSL-93-7. It will become a chapter in the
FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook
(a guide to assist FAA Certification Specialists with advanced technology
Directions in Software Safety: Causal Modelling as an Aid to
Peter Fenelon and John A McDermid.
High Integrity Systems Engineering
Group, Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington,
York YO1 5DD, UK. See also other
papers and reports
by Pete Fenelon.
Risk management is for
everyone, Felix Redmill.
British Computer Society and Oxford University
The list of publications held at
NASA Langley produced
under NASA sponsorship since 1989 by various organizations, together with
some on-line publications may be of interest. An
overview of the NASA Langley programme with a good selection of references
Papers on safety-critical systems in computer science
journals (authors/titles only) and
technical reports (abstracts).
Software Risk publication
from Research Access.
Standard: Defense system software development.
numbers are tricking you by Arnold Barnett in the
MIT Technology Review magazine.
Safety-Critical Systems Computer
Language Survey Results by Robin Rowe, posted on
comp.software-eng, etc., November 1994.
Risks, book by
Peter G. Neumann, 1994.
Detection, Supervision and Safety for Technical Processes 1994,
edited by Ruokonen, Pergamon, 1994.
Detection, Supervision and Safety for Technical Processes 1997,
edited by Ruokonen, Pergamon, 1997. In preparation.
Reliability and Applications of Emerging Intelligent Control
Technologies, edited by Ng. and Hung, Pergamon, 1995.
on safety from a
searchable catalogue by Elsevier.
Safety Related Computer
Controlled Systems Market Study by Coopers & Lybrand,
00-56 and other
Defence Standards from the UK Minstry of
safe is your airline?, The
Economist, 11-17 January 1997. Leader pages 13-14 and full story pages
Control and Instrumentation, covers hardware and software for process
engineering (much of which is safety critical). Editor: Brian Tinham, 30
Calderwood Street, London SE18 6QH, UK (tel: +44-181-855-7777, fax: 0181
316 3422). Assistant Editor: Jeremy Jones, email
High Integrity Systems, launched in 1994 and published by
Oxford University Press, is an
excellent forum for papers on safety-critical systems. Editor: Prof. A.D.
McGettrick, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Strathclyde, Livingstone
Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, UK, email
reviews and letters may be sent to: Dr. Phil A. Bennett, Director, Centre
for Software Engineering Ltd., Belwin Drive, Flixborough, Scunthorpe DN15
8SN, UK (fax: +44-1724-846256, no email!).
Engineering & System Safety from
Elsevier Applied Science, Oxford, is edited by G.E. Apostolakis, School
of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, 38-137 Engineering
IV, Los Angeles, California 90024-1597, USA (fax: +1--310-206-2302, no known
Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering from
Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine from
The following relevant books have on-line information:
Safeware: System Safety and Computers, by
Nancy G. Leveson,
University of Washington
Addison-Wesley, 1995. ISBN: 0-201-11972-2,
Computer Related Risks, by
Peter G. Neumann,
ACM Press Books
( ACM Press /
Addison-Wesley), 1995. ISBN: 0-201-55805-X,
Software in Safety Related Systems, by Brian A. Wichmann,
Wiley, 1992. ISBN: 0471-93474-7.
Computer Systems, by
Neil Storey, Addison-Wesley, 1996.
(Annual IEEE Conference on COMPuter ASSurance). See
COMPASS '95 information.
ENCRESS meetings (including the International Conference on Reliability,
Quality & Safety of Software-Intensive Systems). See
ENCRESS'97, Athens, Greece, 29-30 May 1997. Annual European
ENCRESS club conference.
(Pacific Rim International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Systems).
(Annual IFAC Symposium on SAFEty of COMPuter Control Systems). See
UK, 8-10 September 1997.
SAFECOMP'94, the 13th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability
and Security, Anaheim, California, USA, 23-26 October 1994. No known on-line
SAFECOMP'95, the 14th
International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, Villa
Carlotta, Belgirate, Italy, 11-13 October 1995.
SAFECOMP'96, the 15th
international Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, Vienna,
Austria, 23-25 October 1996.
SSS (Safety-critical Systems Symposium). See
Brighton, UK, 4-6 February 1997. Annual UK Safety-Critical
Systems Club symposium.
Joan.Atkinson@newcastle.ac.uk for further information.
NASA/MOD AIS Security
This page is mentioned in:
Safety-critical systems and the World Wide Web, by Jonathan Bowen.
Safety Systems: The Safety-Critical Systems Club
Newsletter, 4(2):16, January 1995.
Last updated by Jonathan
Bowen, 11 February 1997.
Further information for possible inclusion is welcome.
Part of the OUCL