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4 December 1998

From: "Justin Coleman" <>
To: <>
Subject: Space And Missile Defense
Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1998 10:56:08 -0600

Space And Missile Defense

During the Cold War, the focus of space support was on strategic missions:
support to strategic nuclear forces and the National Command Authorities,
strategic communications, strategic warning of attack to the homeland,
strategic nuclear targeting, and arms control and verification. The tactical
warfighter viewed space support as being largely behind the "green door."
Space was the domain of the U.S. Air Force and the intelligence community.
Warfighters felt space capabilities were unresponsive and held little
utility for operational and tactical forces. Largely, they ignored space

The Persian Gulf War changed this perception forever. The U.S. Army
demonstrated the value of space support to the warfighter, adapting Cold War
systems to meet immediate tactical needs. Army tactical exploitation of
national capabilities provided tactical commanders with national-level
intelligence for mission planning and battle damage assessment. Satellites
provided tactical warfighters communications with theater-wide and even
global reach. Space systems enabled missile warning arid precise navigation.
In all phases of the Gulf War, space systems were essential to the
unparalleled success that coalition forces achieved.

Operation Desert Storm also highlighted the need for effective multitiered
missile defense. In response to the Iraqi Scud threat, Patriot batteries
were rushed to the theater. Patriot batteries defending Israel did much to
protect innocent civilians and preserve the coalition. On February 25, 1991,
an Iraqi Scud missile penetrated coalition air defenses and hit Army
barracks at Al Khubar, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 American soldiers and
wounding nearly 100 more. This Scud killed or wounded more soldiers than any
other engagement in the war. Many U.S. intelligence and air assets were then
diverted from other important missions to address the Iraqi Scud threat.

Since the Gulf War, the Army has worked hard at institutionalizing space and
missile defense across the full spectrum of military operations. Each new
crisis and military deployment further highlights the tactical utility of
space systems. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and recent
launches of longer range and more complex ballistic missiles by Pakistan,
North Korea and Iran demonstrate the need to protect the force from the
growing ballistic and cruise missile threat.

At the forefront of the Army's space and missile defense efforts is the U.S.
Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC). Continuing a space and
missile defense legacy begun more than four decades ago by predecessor
commands, USASMDC is one of the Army's newest major commands. It is the
Army's specified proponent for space and national missile defense (NMD), and
is the Army operational integrator for theater missile defense (TMD),
providing the Army a senior voice in all joint and DoD forums that examine
issues in these mission areas. This mission includes coordination,
integration and execution in the areas of combat development, materiel
development, maintaining an advanced technology base, and research and

The commander of USASMDC also serves as the commander of U.S. Army Space
Command (ARSPACE), the Army component to U.S. Space Command. As such, he
commands assigned Army forces and operates facilities in support of the
commander in chief, Space Command. This multifunctional mission makes
USASMDC unique within all of the Army and Department of Defense.

In February 1997, the Space and Missile Defense Command concluded a
memorandum of agreement with U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
(TRADOC). SMDC now identifies, coordinates and forwards space and missile
defense requirements for TRADOC approval, in addition to leading the
integration of doctrine, training, leader development, organization,
materiel and soldier solutions across the Army and within appropriate, joint
agencies. These duties are focused in the SMDC Force Development and
Integration Center (FDIC) collocated with the command headquarters in
Arlington, Va. The FDIC works in concert with other elements of TRADOC and
the field to identify and guide the development and experimentation of space
and missile defense operational concepts and requirements, and provide them
to the field for examination. In contrast to the Army's historical
methodology of using capabilities of systems already on-orbit, the focus is
on incorporating Army requirements into new space systems through the joint
requirements validation process before these systems are launched. The
center provided space and missile defense input to the revision of Field
Manual 100-5, Operations. It also writes the space portion of the Department
of the Army modernization plan and has recently published the Army space
master plan. The center is further institutionalizing space in Army
operations through the designation of functional area 40, space operations,
for which SMDC is the proponent under the Officer Personnel Management
System XXI.

FDIC is deeply involved in the Army After Next effort, coordinating the
command's support of the Army war-fighting exercises at the National
Training Center and sponsoring a series of space games. These
first-of-their-kind war games bring together experts from the National
Security Council, DoD, National Reconnaissance Office, Joint Staff, combined
commands, other Services, industry and academia to fight the space and
missile defense battle realistically in 2025-based scenarios. The results of
these war games then feed into the annual Army After Next war games and the
TRADOC-sponsored integrated idea team process to identify future
requirements and help tile Army shape the future of space and missile

The TRADOC memorandum of understanding also authorizes the Space and Missile
Defense Battle Lab (SMDBL) located in Huntsville, Ala., and Colorado
Springs, Colo. The battle lab brings together technologists and warfighters
to find rapid solutions to warfighter requirements. Examples of SMDBL
efforts include Grenadier BRAT (beyond line-of-sight reporting and
targeting), a system that allows automated blue force tracking and deep
targeting at distances beyond the tactical Internet using national assets,
and the deployable weather workstation. This downsized workstation for
tactical commanders provides weather data that are directly downlinked from
on-orbit weather satellites and automatically fed into tile Army battlefield
command and control system.

The forward element of Army Space Command, located in Colorado Springs,
routinely deploys Army space support teams to Army components involved in
joint operations or exercises. From the Persian Gulf to Bosnia to Kuwait,
soldiers have been providing space support to Army forces deployed to the
world's trouble spots. These teams are now aligned to corps and divisions
and support those units during their warfighter exercises.

ARSPACE soldiers stationed at defense satellite communications system (DSCS)
operations centers around the world manage the operational payload for DoD's
DSCS communications satellites supporting the National Command Authorities,
the Services and other agencies with wideband satellite communications
around the world. The NASA detachment at the Johnson Space Center provides
Army astronauts that fly aboard the space shuttle. AR-SPACE-owned joint
tactical ground stations (JTAGS) in Europe and South Korea provide a
24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week, in-theater missile warning capability with
direct downlinks from the defense support program satellites for the unified
commanders in chief.

The Space and Missile Defense Acquisition Center in Huntsville continues to
develop, field and sustain low-density space and missile defense systems for
the warfighter. The joint land attack cruise missile defense elevated netted
sensor system will be a key element of future joint theater missile defense,
providing a badly needed capability to detect and counter the rapidly
growing cruise missile threat. The Ballistic Missile Targets Joint Program
Office executes the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization targets program,
which provides realistic and reliable missile targets at a low cost in
support of the development of TMD and NMD systems. Looking to the future,
the commander is modernizing JTAGS to ensure theater commanders in chief
will retain in-theater missile warning when the defense support program
satellites are replaced with the space-based-infrared system early in the
next millennium.

The Army Space Program Office exploits current and future tactical potential
of national space systems, integrating these capabilities into the Army and
the Department of Defense as rapidly as possible. The office has developed
and fielded more than 60 systems to the Army and DoD, and its tactical
exploitation of national capabilities program is the model for the rest of
DoD. The tactical exploitation system continues this legacy, providing corps
and division commanders increased capabilities in downsized, more deployable
and mobile platforms.

U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll and Kwajalein Missile Range (USAKA/ KMR) is a
world-class space surveillance and missile test facility. US-AKA/KMR will be
an essential facility as tile Army and Defense Depart-merit test TMD and NMD
systems to support Joint Vision 2010 and Army Vision 2010. Radar at the
facility provides data on thousands of space objects as part of the U.S.
Space Command's space surveillance mission. DoD, NASA and commercial launch
and satellite operators rely heavily on Space Command's space catalog to
ensure their assets will arrive and remain on-orbit safe from collision with
debris. The new NMD ground-based radar-prototype--a key Army responsibility
in the NMD architecture--is located at Kwajalein, and while it is still
being tested, it has demonstrated its potential space control capability by
successfully tracking an on-orbit satellite.

The high-energy laser systems test facility at White Sands Missile Range,
N.M., is another unique USASMDC facility. Recently, it has demonstrated the
use of lasers to destroy rockets in flight and has lazed a satellite in
orbit in an effort to determine the vulnerability of U m S' satellites to
ground-based lasers. This facility is well-suited to the challenges of
applying lasers to help explain the complexities of protecting satellites
and tine use of lasers in missile defense. Currently, the facility is
participating in the U.S.-Israel tactical high-energy laser program to
develop a deployable tactical laser for protection of forces and civilian
populations from short-range missiles and rockets.

Located in Huntsville is the core of the command's space and missile
technology expertise, the Missile Defense and Space Technology Center
(MDSTC), which continues a long tradition of pushing the technology envelope
in areas such as advanced interceptors, sensors, communications and data
processing, ensuring that technology will be there to support the future
requirements of the warfighter. A world-class technology center, MDSTC
provides extensive support to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization as
part of its missile defense development efforts. The new space technology
directorate has allowed the center to place increased emphasis on the
development of space technology. One current effort is a teaming with the
Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office to ensure Army requirements
are incorporated in the Discover II technology demonstration program. This
two-satellite technology demonstration is the forerunner of a constellation
of 24 to 48 satellites that will provide the deployed tactical warfighter
with near-continuous day and night, all-weather, ground moving target
indicator/synthetic aperture radar imagery. The tactical commander will be
able to task the satellite directly and have the imagery directly downlinked
to him in near-real time or real time to make the imagery useful for
fast-paced tactical operations.

As the Army makes the transition to the next century, Force XXI and the Army
After Next, space and missile defense will become even more critical than it
is today. Forces will be smaller, and there is no indication that the Army's
operations tempo will decrease. Army Vision 2010 depends on space and
missile defense capabilities. The Army's near-term modernization strategy is
based on digitization and information dominance. Beyond line-of-sight space
support is critical to connecting sensors, command and control systems, and
weapon platforms into a net-work-centric system. Space and missile defense
will enable full-spectrum operations by contributing to force projection,
force protection and force sustainment. It will also enable information
dominance and shaping the battlespace. Given the geopolitical environment
replete with complex tensions, tile broad spectrum of operational demands on
land forces and the likelihood of asymmetric threats, space and missile
defense will be critical.

Without it, the Army will be incapable of projecting its force, sustaining
it in-theater and conducting the decisive operations described in the Army

Certainly, the space and missile defense mission is larger than USASMDC and
the Army. Just as the Army will not fight alone on future battlefields but
will be part of a joint force, Army Space and Missile Defense Command cannot
perform the space and missile defense mission alone. We must be partners
with others in the Army, other Services, tile joint community, industry,
academia and our allies to ensure tactical warfighters have the space and
missile defense assets they need to deploy, do their jobs and come home