17 May 2001: See also a longer 1963 report by the CIA Inspector General on MKULTRA: http://nl.cryptome.org/mkultra-0003.htm

14 May 2001: See list of MKULTRA documents and subprojects at the National Security Archive:


13 May 2001: Thanks to AW, it appears that the most of the collection of MKULTRA documents cited here was released in 1978 to author John Marks by the CIA under an FOIA request. Mr. Marks subsequently wrote a book based on "16,000 pages of documents" which describes the CIA's behavorial and mind control program; the highly informative book is available on the Web:


The book provides many of the redacted names of program participants as well as much more about the history and extent of the programs.

Some of the documents are dated after Mr. Marks' book, thus may come from other CIA releases.

12 May 2001

These are documents from the Central Intelligence Agency's formerly Top Secret MKULTRA program which conducted what CIA Director Allen Dulles characterized as "ultra-sensitive" research in behavioral modification and assassination studies from the 1950s to the 1970s. MKULTRA was revealed during Congressional hearings in the mid-1970s.

A collection of several thousand digitized images of 1,200 MKULTRA documents was provided by an anonymous donor to IntellNet which has shared a copy of the collection with Cryptome. Selected documents will be transcribed for publication here.

Folders below are linked to IntellNet's archive of document images: http://intellnet.org/mkultra/.

xxxxxxx indicates redactions in the original.

[Folder 0000146167; 8 pages.]

[TSD is the CIA's Technical Services Division, which conducts scientific and technical research in-agency and through outside contracts.]

[Report paginated as 199-206]


[By hand:]

Excerpt from 1957 IG Report "Operations of TSD"

7. Influencing Human Behavior

a. Influencing human behavior is a most complex subject and very difficult  to describe and evaluate in terms of accomplishment, cost, and potential benefit to clandestine operations. The whole field includes medical, physiological and psychological aspects and while there has been much speculation on the subject very little of a positive nature is known about the extent to which human behavior can be predicted, directed and controlled. Chemical Division has launched a program having some specific goals in view and has now reached a point in progress where a review of the program should be made to determine if the effort should be continued and what course it should take.

b. Because of the scarcity of positive knowledge, much time and money is being spent on fairly basic research and extensive testing and experimentation. This type of activity cannot be measured in terms of concrete results nor can dollar values be applied. It requires an appraisal of the objectives of the program from the point of view of the operational benefits to be derived, weighed against the allocation of R&D manpower and funds.

c. In considering the objectives, it is helpful to examine the operational problems the program is designed to meet: One of the major problems is that of improved interrogation techniques. Many different methods are used to break down an individual's resistance to interrogation but there is always doubt about the accuracy and reliability of information obtained by the classical methods of pressure, duress or torture. The use of drugs or psychochemicals in this respect is not new. So-called "truth serums" have been used, sometimes successfully but more often not. The approach being taken by the Chemical Division is to use psychochemicals to create within the individual a mental and emotional situation which will release him from restraint of self-control and induce him to reveal information willingly under adroit manipulation.

d. Related to the improvement of offensive interrogation techniques is the development of defensive measures against opposition interrogation. Knowledge gained in the former will lead to countermeasures for the protection of Agency personnel and information concerning Agency activities. This is another objective of the program.

e. The potential use of psychochemicals in political action operations is well recognized, although it has not been explored as thoroughly as might be expected. Chemical Division includes it as an objective of its program to be prepared to support or make such operations possible. Non-chemical methods of accomplishing political action operations are also included in the program.

f. Lesser objectives but perhaps of equal importance are [two lines redacted] and practical aid to case officers in handling agents. In total, the objectives are considered to be sound. Certainly, research leading to a better understanding of the workings of the human mind is an essential element of intelligence and anything that contributes to the prediction of human behavior or makes possible its direction of control is of inestimable value.

g. Some concrete results have been achieved. Six specific products have been developed and are available for operational use. Three of them P1, C1, and C9, are discrediting and disabling materials which can be administered unwittingly and permit the exercise of a measure of control over the actions of the subject. These have been used in six different operations on a total of 33 subjects. The other products are K2, a knockout material used to facilitate unconsciousness; K3, an alcohol extender which produces a degree of inebriation out of proportion to the amount of alcohol consumed and; A2, which is a stimulant similar to Benzedrine in its effect but without its undesirable after-effects. A manual has been produced which analyzes methods used by Communist security forces in the arrest, interrogation and indoctrination of "enemies of the state." Two other manuals of lesser distinction have been published. One describes methods of administering drugs or chemical materials surreptitiously and misdirecting attention of a subject. The other is devoted to [two lines redacted] and methods of influencing free choice. Other studies are still in process which, it is anticipated, will produce more profound knowledge on the subject of influencing human behavior.

h. At the present time, there are a substantial number of active projects concerned with substantive research in the behavioral field. Since many of them include other activities, it is not practical to try to segregate those contracts which have direct application or to apportion those with multiple objectives. The total extent of the effort, however, can be fairly described.

i. Extensive research is being conducted by two organizations in which the Agency has substantial interests. One is the xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx a research foundation with headquarters in Washington. It is supported in part by the Agency and is used principally as a funding mechanism to finance research projects. In addition to its use as a cover facility, it provides useful information in several areas of medical research and permits the inclusion of areas of special interest in research sponsored by xxxxxxxxxx. The medical member of CD [Chemical Division] Staff is accredited to [one-half line redacted]. The other organization is the [one line redacted]. This is wholly supported by the Agency as a cover facility. The Society has two full-time employees and a high-level Board of Directors who ostensibly provide funds for research in the lesser known ecological aspects of humanity. As a cover facility, it is more effective and less costly than xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

j. Substantive research in the behavioral field is being conducted under contract at several universities throughout the country. The xxxxxxx University xxxxxxxxxxxx is exploring the effects on human tissue of lysergic acid, the principal ingredient of P1. xxxxxxxxx University is searching for antidotes for similar materials. At xxxxxx University, researchers are seeking an antagonist for ethyl alcohol to provide a defense against intoxication. At the University xxxxxxx some of the country's foremost authorities on hypnotism is examining the validity of the hypnotic state and measuring the effect of hypnosis on the human mind. A project at xxxxxx University is concerned with research in neurology to determine the effect of emotional stress and the resulting structural damage to the brain on other tissue of the human body.

k. A major problem in the behavioral program is that of arranging for and conducting the essential tests and experimentation which produce the basic data for the development of techniques and the application of the end product to operational use. This is a time-consuming and costly process but one which must be accomplished carefully and thoroughly. There are no short cuts or substitutes which can be applied. Because of the unconventional use of the materials involved, CD has had added difficulty in obtaining expert services and facilities to conduct tests and experiments. Some of the activities are considered to be professionally unethical and in some instances border on the illegal. These difficulties have not been entirely surmounted but good progress is being made. Another problem is raised by the lack of professional knowledge of lysergic acid, the basic substance with which CD is concerned. Very little research has been done by the medical profession and CD is breaking new ground in its efforts to develop this material for operational use.

l. preliminary tests and experiments are generally conducted on animals. For this purpose, CD has engaged the services and facilities of such institutions as [one line redacted]. The National Institute of Mental Health conducts tests on its ape colony to study the effects of P1, and knockout material and has provided much information of operational value. Human experimentation is more difficult to accomplish. The best results have been obtained from mental institutions such as [one line redacted] Narcotics Addiction Hospital, Lexington, Ky., [one line redacted]. An arrangement is in process with the [one line redacted] which is expected to produce valuable results. Even with all the data gathered from these institutions there remains a considerable area of doubt. These tests and experiments are conducted under controlled conditions and the results may be quite different from those obtained in the operational use of the material. In this respect, [half-line redacted] must be experimental as well. Much more testing must be conducted before the behavior program can be considered to have accomplished its objective.

[One-half page redacted]

n. In almost five years since Fiscal 1952 the program has cost approximately xxxxxxxxxxx. This includes funds to support [one-half line redacted] and part of the cost of supporting xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. It also includes part of a grant to xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx to aid in the construction of a wing devoted to mental illnesses. Concrete results achieved thus far are difficult to justify in relation to cost. No price can be attached to the intangible value of the extensive contracts with outstanding members of the medical and other scientific professions. At this point in time it is impossible to assess accurately the potential of the program or to estimate the value of the anticipated results. It is believed, however, that the program should be continued with the adjuration that it be conducted as economically as possible.

[Three-quarters page redacted.]

[Folder 0000146166; 2 pages.]


1 July 1963


SUBJECT: MKULTRA - Comments of Chief, TSD, on Draft Report of Inspection

1. I called xxxxxxxxxxx to acknowledge receipt of Dr. Gottlieb's comments on John Vance's report of inspection of MKULTRA, TSD. I said I felt this reply was very helpful in explaining the TSD position on the most critical points on our IG recommendations, [one line redacted] testing on unwitting subjects, [one line redacted]. I reminded xxxxxxxxxxx that his rebuttal dealt with only three of the ten specific recommendations we had made in our IG report. He replied that the balance of these recommendations really all related to tightening up the administration of the charter and that he personally welcomed the opportunity to have this spelled out in greater detail. I said I felt that our recommendations went quite beyond the field of administration and cited in particular the problem of [one line redacted] -- I said this was much more than an administration problem, and that would like to know what solution he and Dr. Gottlieb proposed to improve [half-line redacted]. xxxxxxxxxxx tended to dismiss this problem partially on the grounds that it was a function of a personal relationship between him and who ever might be the DD/R at any given time, and partially because he didn't think there was any dogmatic or systematic solution.

2. I told xxxxxxxxxxx that we would prefer not to submit our MKULTRA paper to the DD/P without some more explicit statement from him on the problem of [one-half line redacted] and that we also felt Dr. Gottlieb's three page endorsement failed to comment on our detailed proposals for tightening up the administration of MKULTRA activities. Mr. xxxxxxxxxxx appreciated this but felt that they had registered their views on the most important points at issue, and they urged us at this state to go ahead and submit our report with the Gottlieb endorsement as it now stands to the DD/P.

3. Recommendation: I think we have little to gain by massaging this report any further and recommend that we submit it to the DD/P with a request for his specific comments on our recommendations. I recommend that we redraft the last recommendation on the audit function in accordance with the proposal of xxxxxxxxxxx .


E. J. Applewhite

[Folder 0000146165; 2 pages.]


29 November 1963



1. A meeting was held in General Carter's office on 29 November 1963 to discuss the subject program. Those present, in addition to General Carter, were Messrs. Helms, Kirkpatrick, xxxxxxxx, Gottlieb and Earman. The main thrust of the discussion was the testing of certain drugs on unwitting U.S. citizens. Dr. Gottlieb gave a brief history of the MKULTRA program which was not in any way at variance with the IG report of August 1963 on this subject.

2. Messrs. Gottlieb and xxxxxxxx argued for the continuation of unwitting testing, using as the principal point that controlled testing cannot be depended upon for accurate results. General Carter, Mr. Kirkpatrick, and I do not disagree with this point. We also accept the necessity for having a "stable of drugs" on the shelf and the requirement for continued research and development of drugs -- not only for possible operational use but also to give CIA insight on the state of the art in this field and in particular to alert us to what the opposition is or might be expected to do in the R&D and employment of drugs.

3. xxxxxxxxxx noted that there was no disagreement with the recommendations of the IG survey on MKULTRA with the exception of the unwitting testing problem. In response to a query from General Carter, he stated that since the IG report such testing has been held in abeyance.

4. General Carter made it clear that he understood the necessity for research and development of all types of drugs, to include their testing. However, he was troubled ty the "unwitting aspect". This led to a brief discussion on the possibility of unwitting tests on foreign nationals, but according to xxxxxxxx this had been ruled out as a result of several conversations he recently had with senior chiefs of stations -- too dangerous and the lack of controlled facilities. (This seemed an odd conclusion to me since the same dangers exist in the U.S. and from what we were able to find out during our survey, the facilities we have for uncontrolled testing leave much to be desired -- I made a point of this.)

5. After further discussion, it was agreed:

a. That the charter of MKULTRA would be revised along the lines recommended in the IG Survey.

b. The procedures for testing drugs are to be reviewed and new alternative proposals submitted.

c. If it is concluded by the DD/P that unwitting testing on American citizens must be continued to operationally prove out these drugs, it may become necessary to place this problem before the Director for a decision.

6. I made the point that the IG survey had found other problems with the MKULTRA program in addition to the unwitting testing, but stated if the charter is rewritten along the lines recommended, I believe these problems would be corrected.

7. NOTE: the IG Survey of MKULTRA was handed to xxxxxxxx after the meeting for his use in redrafting the charter.


J. S. Earman
Inspector General


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