6 February 1998
Bibliography of "An Appraisal of the Technologies of Political Control"

Thanks to DN



Topic Page
General 74
Developments in Surveillance Technology                                                        76
Innovations in Crowd Control 80
a) 2nd Generation 'Less Lethal' Weapons
b) Riot Control Weapons
New Prison Control Technology 98
Interrogation, Torture Techniques and Technologies 98


Abel, P (1997): Information on the Military, Security Police (MSP) trade: an evaluation of commercial and public domain information sources. Unpublished M. Sc. submission Thesis, Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Library & Information Studies.

Ackroyd, C; Margolis, K; Rosenhead, J; Shallice, T (1977) The Technology of Political Control. 1st ed. Pelican Books. Middlesex.

Adams, D (1995) Internal Military Intervention in the United States, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 32, No.2, pp.197-211.

Allen, TB (1991) Discussion Of Effects Of the Taser in Fatalities Involving Police Confrontation. Journal of Forensic Science, pp. 956-958 .

Amnesty International (1997) Made in Britain - How the UK Makes Torture and Death its Business. Amnesty International, London. 75 pages.

Amnesty International (1996) Amnesty International Report 1996. Amnesty International Publications, London.

Amnesty International (1992) Repression Trade (UK) United. How the UK makes torture and death its business. 1st ed. Amnesty International British Section, London.

Anon. (1993) High Tech Death from Winchester. New York Times 113, Nov 13, p. 11.

Bledowska, C (Ed.) (1983) War & Order. Junction Books, London.

Boutwell, J; Klare, MT; Reed, LW (1995) Lethal Commerce - The Global Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons. 1st. ed. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 160 pages.

Bowden, T (1978) Beyond The Limits Of  The Law. 1st ed. Penguin, Middlesex,UK.

British Army (Ed.) (1969) Army Land Operations Manual (ALOM), Counter Revolutionary Operations. Vol. 111. British Army, Aldershot.

BSSRS (Ed.) (1974) The New Technology of Repression - Lessons From Ireland. Vol. BSSRS Paper 2. BSSRS, London.

BSSRS Technology of Political Control Group; RAMPET (Eds.) (1985) Techno-cop: New Police Technologies. Free Association Books, London.

Burnham, D (1996) Above the Law - Secret Deal, Political Fixes, and Other Misadventures of the US Department of Justice. Washington.

Christie, N (1994) Crime Control as Industry: Towards GULAGS, Western Style. 1st ed. Routledge, London.

Davie, M (1984) Home robots poised for a great leap forward. The Observer 14 October.

Enloe, C, H (1980) Ethnic Soldiers - State Security In A Divided Society. Pelican, UK.

Frost & Sullivan International (Ed.) (1991) The US Market for Low Intensity Conflict. 1991 ed. Frost & Sullivan International.


Gordon, P (1987) The Killing Machine: Britain & The International Repression Trade. Race & Class XXIX.

Hoefnagels, M (Ed.) (1977) Repression & Repressive Violence. Swets & Zeitlinger. Amsterdam.

Hurtado, ME (1988) The Science of Supression. South November, pp. 70-73.

Kitson, F (1971) Low Intensity Operations. Faber & Faber, London.

Klare, MT (1979) The International Repression Trade. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists November, pp. 22-27.

Klare, MT (1977) Supplying Repression. 1st ed. The Field Foundation, New York.

Klare, MT (1976) Merchants of Repression. NACLA Latin America & Empire Report, Vol X, n6, July-August.

Klare, MT (1972) War Without End. Knopf, New York.

Klare, MT; Arnson, C (1981) Supplying Repression - US Support for Authoritarian Regimes Abroad. 1st ed. Institute for Policy Studies, Washington.

Klare, MT; Stein, N (1976) Exporting the tools of repression. The Nation October 16, p. 365 .

Knoth, A (1994) March of the Insectoids. International Defence Review 1 November, p. 55

Kraska, PB; Kappeler, VE (1997) Militarizing American Police: The Rise and Normalisation of Paramilitary Units, Social Problems, Vol 44, No. 1, February.

Kritzer, H, M (1977): A Theory of Unconventional Political Action: The Dynamics of Confrontation. In: Repression & Repressive Violence. (Ed: Hoefnagels,M) Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 109-132.

Marx, GT (1988): The Maximum Security Society. In: Nouvelles Technologies et Justice Penale. 1st ed. (Eds: LeBlanc, M; Tremblay, P; Blumstein A) pp. 468-99.

McClintock, M (1992) Instruments of Statecraft. 1st ed. Pantheon, New York.

McMahon, M (1996) Control as Enterprise: Some recent trends in privatization and criminal justice. Deviance et Societe 20, n2, pp. 103-118.

Nogala, D (1996) How Policing gets 'Privatised' - Patterns of the New Security Economy. Unpublished paper presented to the European Research Conference, 'Political economy, Transnationality and Community Safety', 7-10 September, 1996, Manchester, UK.

Nogala, D (1995): The future role of technology in policing. In: Comparisons in Policing: An International Perspective. 1st ed. (Ed: Brodeur, JP) Avebury, Aldershot, 191-210.

Petersen, J (1993) This bullet kills you better. Mother Jones 18, Sept-Oct, p. 15.

Savage, J (1985) Low-cost vehicle conversions for police operations, the Discreet Order Vehicle (DOV) concept. International Law Enforcement.

SIPRI (Ed.) (1979) The Prohibition of Inhuman and Indiscriminate Weapons - The Humanitarian Rules of War. Taylor Francis LtD, London.

Stephens, G (1990) High Tech Crime Fighting: The Threat To Civil Liberties. The Futurist 24(4), July/August, pp. 20-25.

Winner, L (1977) Autonomous Technology - Technics Out of Control As A Theme In Political Thought. MIT Press, Boston, USA.


Wright, S (1991) The New Technologies Of Repression:A New Case For Arms Control. Philosophy and Social Action 17, January-June. pp. 1-20.

Wright, S (1987b): New Police Technologies & Sub-State Conflict Control. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Lancaster, The Richardson Institute, Department of Politics. 600 pages.

Wright, S (1978) New Police Technologies: An exploration of the social implications and unforeseen impacts of some recent developments. Journal of Peace Research XV, n4, pp. 305-322.

Wright, S (1977): An assessment of the New Technologies of Repression. In: Repression & Repressive Violence. 1st ed. (Ed: Hoefnagels,M) Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 133-165.

Developments in Surveillance Technology

Abel, P; Hebenton, B; Thomas, T; Wright, S (1991) The Technopolitics of Exclusion,. Unpublished paper prepared for the XIXth. Annual Conference of The European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control, Potsdam, Germany, 4-8 September 1991.

Anders, G (1984) On the Destruction Of Life In The Age Of The 3rd Industrial Revolution. Vol. 2. Verlag CH Beck.

Anon. (1993) Phone-Tappers dream machine. Sunday Times January 17.

Aubrey, C (1981) Who's Watching You? Britain's Security Services & The Official Secrets Act. 1st ed. Pelican, Middlesex,UK. 204 pages.

Bamford, J (1982) The Puzzle Palace: America's National Security Agency and Its Special Relationship with Britain's GCHQ. Sidgwicj & Jackson, Ltd, London. 465 pages.

Banisar, D (1996) Big Brother Goes High-Tech. Covert Action Quarterly 56, Spring, pp. 6-13.

Bennett, CJ (1991) Computers, Personal Data and Theories of Technology (Comparative approaches to Privacy Protection in the 1990s). Science,Technology and Human Values 11, n1, (Winter), pp. 51-69.

Bercu, SA (1994) Toward Universal Surveillance in an Information Age Economy [Can we handle Treasury's new police technology?]. Jurimetrics Journal 34, Sept, pp. 383-449.

Bledowska, C (Ed.) (1983) War & Order. Junction Books, London.

Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Hrsg.) (1990) Technik im Dienste der Straftattenbekdmpfung (BKA-Vortragsreihe Bd. 35)., Wiesbaden.

Campbell, D (Ed.) (1981) Big Brother Is Listening - Phone tappers and the security state. 1st ed. Vol. 2. New Statesman, London. 70 pages.

Campbell, D (1980): Society Under Surveillance. In: Policing The Police. Vol. 2. (Ed: Hain, P) John Calder, London.

Campbell, D; Connor, S (1986) On The Record. Michael Joseph, London.

Clarke, R (1994) Dataveillance by Governments [The Technique of Computer Matching]. Information Technology & People 7, pp. 46-85.

Clarke, R (1994) Human Identification in Information Systems [Management Challenges and Public Policy Issues]. Information Technology & People 7. pp. 6-37.


Clarke, R (1988) Information Technology and Dataveillance. Communications of the ACM. 31(5). pp. 498-512.

Committee on the Judiciary (1990) High-technology weapons in the war on drugs. Hearing of the United States Senate. Com. Serial No. J-110-64.

Corbett, R; Marx, GT (1991) Critique: No Soul in the New Machine: Technofallacies in the Electronic Monitoring Movement. Justice Quarterly 8,3. pp. 399-414.

Custance, NDE; Wickham, KM (1992) Evaluating scene monitoring systems: A discussion paper. In (Hrsg.) 1992 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (Proceedings, S. 206-212). Lexington.

Dandeker, C (1990) Surveillance, Power and Modernity (Bureaucracy and discipline from 1700 to the present day. Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.

Davies, S (1996) Big Brother - Britain's Web Of Surveillance And The New Technological Order. 1st ed . Pan Books, London. 294 pages.

Davies, S (1996) Monitor-Extinguishing Privacy On The Information Superhighway. 1st ed. Pan Macmillan, Sydney, Australia. 262 pages.

Davies, S (1994) Touching Big Brother [How Biometric Technology will fuse flesh and machine]. Information Technology & People 7, pp. 38-47.

De Hert,P; Gutwirth, S (1994) Camera's en de noodzakelijke Ontgoening van de Privacywet. Rechtskundig Weekblad 1994-1995, n4, pp. 105-113.

Einstadter, WJ (1992) Asymmetrics of Control: [Surveillance, Intrusion and Corporate Theft of Privacy]. Justice Quarterly 9, pP. 285-298.

EPIC (Ed.) (1996) The 1996 EPIC Cryptography and Privacy Sourcebook. Electronic Privacy Information Center, Washington. 227 pages.

Flaherty, DH (1992) Protecting Privacy In Surveillance Societies: Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada and the USA. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, USA.

Flaherty, DH (1988) The emergence of surveillance societies in the Western world. Government Information Quarterly 5, n4, pp. 377-87.

Flaherty, DH (1986) Governmental Surveillance and Bureaucratic Accountability: [Data Protection Agencies in Western Societies]. Science,Technology and Human Values 11, n1 (Winter), pp. 7-18.

Gandy, OH Jr (1993) The Panoptic Sort (A Political Economy of Personal Information). Westview Press (USA), Boulder (Colorado).

Gilliom, J (1994) Surveillance, Privacy and the Law (Employee Drug Testing and the Politics of Social Control). University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.


Gowrinathan, S; Mataloni, RJ Sr; Schwartz, S (1991) Surveillance Technologies. SPIE (Washington) 1479.

Greenfield, K (1991) Cameras in Teddy Bears [Electronic Visual Surveillance and the 4th Amendment]. University of Chicago Law Review 58 pp. 1045-1077

Hager, N (1996) Secret Power, New Zealand's Role In the International Spy Network. 2nd. ed. Craig Potton, Nelson, New Zealand. 299 pages.

Hartman, JD (1993) Legal Guidelines For Covert Surveillance Operations in the Private Sector. Butterworth-Heinmann, USA.

Herrera, RJ; Tracey, ML (1992) DNA Fingerprinting: Basic Techniques, Problems, and Solutions. Journal of Criminal Justice 20. pp. 237-48.

Hocking, J (1994) First the verdict and then the trial. Policing and Society 4, pp. 219-236

Hohmann, H (1987) Freiheitssicherung durch Datenschulz. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt.

Home Office (1995) Identity Cards (A consultation document). London, HMSO (United Kingdom).

Hooper, D (1987) Official Secrets - The Use & Abuse of the Act. 1st ed. Secker & Warburg, London. 349 pages.

Jenkins, J (1992) Eye can see you. New Statesman and Society 5, February, pp. 14-15.

Kitchin, H (1996) A Watching Brief - A Code of Practice for CCTV. LGIU, London. 1973 pages.

Kruegle, H (1995) CCTV Surveillance (Practises and Technology). Butterworth-Heinemann. Boston.

Kulhmann, J (1993) Brger auf Kartern [Totaleffassung durch sozialvkologische Rationalisierungssyteme]. Bldtter fur deutsche und internationale Politik 38, pp. 1333-1346.

Kusserow, R (1984) The government needs computer matching to root out waste and fraud. Communications of the ACM 27, pp. 542-545.

Kutscha, M (1992) Die Legalisierung des Lauschangriffes. Demokratie und recht 20, pp. 247-252.

Laudon, K (1986) The Dossier Society. Columbia University Press, New York, US.

Leuthardt, B (1996) Leben Online (Von der Chipkarte bis zurn Europol-Netz). Reinbek: Rowohlt.

LGIU (Ed.) (1994) Candid Cameras. LGIU, London.

Lilly, R (1990) Tagging reviewed. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 29, pp. 229-245.

Lyon, D (1994) The Electronic Eye (The Rise of Surveillance Society). Polity Press, Oxford.

Lyon, D (1994) The Rise of the Surveillance Society. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Lyon, D (1992) The new surveillance: Electronic technologies and the maximum security society. Crime, Law and Social Change 18(1/2), pp. 159-75.

Manning, PK (1992): Information Technologies and the Police. In: Modern Policing (Crime and Justice. A review of research). Vol. 15. (Eds: Tonry, M; Morris, N) University of Chicago Press, Chicago, S.349-S.398.

Martin, B (1993) Antisurveillance. Anarchist Studies 1, pp. 111-129.


Martin, B (1990) Computers on the road: [The social implications of automatic vehicle identification]. Current Affairs Bulletin 67, October 5, pp. 23-28.

Martin B; Scott, P (1992) Automatic Vehicle Identification: A Test of Theories of Technology. Science, Technology and Human Values 17, pp. 485-505

Marx, GT (1988) La societi de sicuriti maximale. Diviance et Societi 12, pp. 147-166.

Marx, GT (1988) Undercover - Police Surveillance in America. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Marx, GT (1986): The Iron Fist and the Velvet Glove: Totalitarian potentials within Democratic Structures. In: The Social Fabric (Dimensions and Issues). (Ed: Short, JE) Sage, Beverly Hills, S.135-S.161.

Marx, GT (1985) The New Surveillance. Technology Review 88, p. 42.

Nock, SL (1993) The costs of privacy: (surveillance and reputation in America). de Gruyter, New York.

Nogala, D (1996) Elektroschock per Fernbedienung. Neue Kriminalpolitik 8, pp. 17-18.

Nogala, D (1995): The future role of technology in policing. In: Comparisons in Policing: (An international perspective). (Ed: Brodeur,P) Avebury, Aldershot, S.191-S.210. (N)

Nogala, D (1994) Informatietechnologie en politie [Over innovatie en democratische controle (Bearbeitung der Radaktion)]. Het Tijdschrift voor de Politie 56, pp. 11-13.

Nogala, D (1993) Le role de la technologie dans le police de demain. Les Cahiers de la Sicuriti Intirieure (Systemes de police comparhs et coopiration II) 14 (Aozt-Octobre), pp. 137-157.

Nogala, D (1992) Sicherheit als Ware und Dienstleistung - Zur Entwicklung einer zukunftstrdchtigen Industrie. Brgerrechte und Polizei (CILIP) 43, pp. 18-22.

Nogala, D (1989) Polizei avancierte Technik und sozilale Kontrolle (Funktion und Ideologie technikbesetzter Kontrollstrategien im Proze der Rationalisierung von Herrschaft - Mit einem Vorwort von Fritz Sack. Centarus (Hamburger Studien zur Kriminologie Bd. 6), Hamburg.

Office of National Drug Control Policy/Department of Energy (1993) Tactical Technologies and Wide Area Surveillance. Proceedings: International Symposium, November 2-5, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.

Office of Technology Assessment (1985) Federal Government Information Technology: Electronic Surveillance and Civil Liberties. US Congress (OTA-CIT-293), Washington DC.

Olms, E; Liehman, D (1989) EG-Binnenmarkt: Der "Europdische Sicherheitsmarkt" naht . . . Vorgdnge 28, n2 (Nr. 98), pp. 62-74.

Papy, JE (1994) Electronic monitoring poses a myriad challenges for correctional agencies. Corrections Today July pp. 132-135.

Paver, RC (1989) Technology and the Fourth Amendment: A Proposed Formulation of Visual Searches. Journal Of Criminal Law and Criminology 80, n1, pp. 1-113.

Piller, C (1993) Bosses with X-ray eyes [Your employer may be using computers to keep tabs on you]. MacWorld July, pp. 118-123.

Privacy International (Ed.) (1995) Big Brother Incorporated - A Report On the International Trade in Surveillance Technology and Its Links To The Arms Industry, 1st ed., vol 1 November, Privacy International, London. 114 pages.

Radzikowski, JS (1995) EBT: Strategic opportunities for Smart Card application in Government Services. In: M. Datow (Hrsg), Chipkarten-Technologie in der Anwendung (Feldversuche und Pilotprojekte-Konzeptionen und Resultate S. 153-159) . Berlin: Spiess (Kongre dokumentation MULTICARD '95 Internationaler Kongrein) Berlin 11-13, January 1995.

Regan, PM; Weingarten, FW (1986) The National Communications System and Federal Electronic Surveillance Policy. Science, Technology and Human Values L1, pp. 17-30 .

Riedel, RB; Coffin, JS; Prokoski, FJ (1992) Forensic use of infrared video. In: (Hrsg), 1992 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (Proceedings, S. 108-112). Lexington.

Rule, JB (1973) Private Lives and Public Surveillance. Allen Lane, London.

Rule, J; McAdam, D; Stearns, L; Uglow, D (1980) The politics of privacy (Planning for Personal Data Systems as Powerful Technologies). Elsiever, New York.

Schmidt, AK (1988) Electronic Monitors. In: Nouvelles Technologies et Justice Penale. (Eds: LeBlanc, M; Tremblay, P; Blumstein, A), pp. 340-346.

Steinmuller, W (1993) Informationstechnologie und Gesellschaft (Einfhrung in die Angewandte Informatik). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.

Surette, R (1990): Law enforcement surveillance projects employing media technology. In: The media and criminal justice policy (Recent Research and Social Effects). (Ed: Surette, R) Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, S.2777.

US Department of Justice (1968) Project Sky Knight: A Demonstration in Aerial Surveillance And Crime Control. US Department of Justice, Washington DC.

Westin, A (1967) Privacy and Freedom. Bodley Head, London.

Wolinksy, C; Sylvester, J (1992) Privacy in the Telecommunications Age. Communications of the ACM 35, pp. 23-25.

Innovations in Crowd Control:

a) 2nd Generation 'Less Lethal' Weapons

Alexander, J (undated) Non-lethal weapons: a need for new options. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Alexander, John B (undated) Potential non-lethal policy issues. Los Alamos National Laboratory, IT-6, LA-UR-923206, submitted to The Wall Street Journal.

Alexander, John B (undated) Rethinking national security requirements and the need for non-lethal weapons options. Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-UR-92-3773, submitted to President-Elect Clinton's Transition Team.

Alexander, John B (1994) Non-lethal weapons as force options for the Army. Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA-UR 94-861, Presented to the National Research Council Board on Army Science and Technology, 28 March 1994.

Alexander, Lexi R; Klare, Julia L (1995) Non-lethal weapons: New Tools for peace. Issues in Science and Technology 12, n2, Winter, pp. 67-74.

American Defense Preparedness Association (1996) Non-Lethal Defense II Conference,. Proceedings and updated Attendee Roster of a Conference held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, McClean. Virginia. March 6-7, 1996.


Anon. (1997) 15th MEU company first unit to complete non-lethal training evolution. Inside the Navy Janaury 20 p. 11.

Anon. (1997) Marine units to receive new non-lethal gear by Summer 1997. Inside the Navy January 6. p. 3.

Anon. (1997) Non-lethal technology and the way we think of force. Marine Corps Gazette January, pp. 26-28.

Anon. (1997) Pentagon programs $164 million for non-lethals through 2003. Defense Week January 13, pp. 3-12.

Anon. (1996) Army directs procurement of non-lethal technologies for use in Bosnia. Inside the Army April 15, p. 14.

Anon. (1996) Army establishes short-term non-lethal goals. Defense Week July 8, p. 6.

Anon. (1996) Army prepares to ship non-lethals to Bosnia. Defense Week May 20, p. 2.

Anon. (1996) Comptroller doubts Pentagon non-lethal funding excuse. Defense Week June 17, p. 6.

Anon. (1996) DoD Guides Non-lethal weapon use. Defense News July 22-28, p. 8.

Anon. (1996) DoD reprograms $5.2 million in FY '96 for non-lethal weapons. Defense Daily March 27, p. 463.

Anon. (1996) Experiments show UAV application in non-lethal warfare. Defense Daily October 8, p. 46.

Anon. (1996) FBI tapped military for non-lethal weapons in ending [Freemen] standoff. Defense Week August 5, pp. 1, 13.

Anon. (1996) Less-than-lethal weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly July 17, pp. 19-21.

Anon. (1996) Marine Corps non-lethal drill finds six-to-20-foot gap in defenses. Inside the Navy August 12, p. 1.

Anon. (1996) Marine Corps non-lethal weapons experiment underway at Camp Pendleton. Inside the Navy July 22, p. 1.

Anon. (1996) Marines evaluate deployment of non-lethal weapons from UAVs. Aerospace Daily October 24, p. 134.

Anon. (1996) Marines hope non-lethal weapons cut civilian casaulties. Defense Week January 2, pp. 3, 6.

Anon. (1996) NATO Group pushes, Pentagon pulls non-lethal efforts: Loophole allows officials to deny technology funds. Defense News April 29 - May 5. p. 12.

Anon. (1996) No premium on killing. Proceedings [as written] December, pp. 26-28.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal plan eyes plus-up for acoustics, anti-personnel equipment. Inside the Pentagon January 4, p. 1.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal turf debate draws Congress's interest, service pleas. Defense Week February 26, pp. 1, 13.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal weapons demand expands as missions change. National Defense March, pp. 34-35.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal weapons - who pays if they kill? Jane's Defence Contracts November, pp. 4-5.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethals: Exec must control purse strings. Defense Week March 11, p. 7.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal costs exceed Pentagon funding allowance. Defense Week April 8, p. 6.


Anon. (1996) Non-lethal pact lauded by Pentagon, questioned by others. Defense Week April 29.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal pact stresses sharing of technologies. Defense Week October 15. pp. 1, 13.

Anon. (1996) Non-lethal weapons: Emerging requirements for security strategy. The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, May, 1996, 56 pp.

Anon. (1996) OSD may retain non-lethal lead, sideline Army, Marines. Defense Week February 12, pp. 1, 13, 14

Anon. (1996) Pentagon delays erode industry enthusiasm on non-lethals. Defense Week April 22, pp. 1, 11, 13.

Anon. (1996) Pentagon's non-lethal policy on the street -- finally. Defense Week July 22, pp. 1, 14.

Anon. (1996) Policy for Non-lethal Weapons. Department of Defense Directive No. 3000.2, 4 pp.

Anon. (1996) POM 98 assigns $176 million to non-lethals through 2003. Defense Week October 7, pp. 1, 15.

Anon. (1996): The role of Non-lethal weapons. In: Strategic Survey 1995 -1996. (Ed: International Institute for Strategic Studies) Oxford University Press, Oxford, 40, 48.

Anon. (1996) Senate questions whereabouts of $37 million non-lethal fund. Defense Week March 25, pp. 1, 14.

Anon. (1996) Stunning Technology: Corrections cowboys get a charge out of their new Sci-Fi weaponry. The Progressive July, pp. 18-22.

Anon. (1996) There's a better way: Tomorrow's missions cry out for a mix of lethal and non-lethal weapons. Armed Forces Journal International July, p. 15.

Anon. (1996) USA defines policy on non-lethal weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly March 6, p. 6.

Anon. (1996) USMC proposed to lead in non-lethal weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly March 27, p. 6.

Anon. (1995) Air Force moving forward with microwave weapons research. Defense Week September 25, pp. 1, 14 .

Anon. (1995) All weapons produce grisly results. Navy Times October 23, p. 70.

Anon. (1995) Are 'vapor bullets' in air force future. Defense Week January 9, p. 9

Anon. (1995) Army pushes ahead with laser countermeasure system production plan. Inside the Pentagon July 13.

Anon. (1995) Battlefield laser weapons continue to get DoD attention. Defense Electronics May, p. 12.

Anon. (1995) Blinding Laser weapons: The need to ban a cruel and inhumane weapon. Human Rights Watch Arms Project report, Vol 7, No.1, September 24, 1995, 49 pp.

Anon. (1995) China markets blinding laser. Jane's Intelligence Review Pointer June, p. 1.

Anon. (1995) Chinese laser 'blinder' weapon for export. Jane's Defence Weekly May 27, p. 3.

Anon. (1995) Congressmen urge ban on using lasers to blind. Defense News January 16-22, p. 6.

Anon. (1995) Dazzling achievements. Sea Power September, pp. 43-44.

Anon. (1995) Debate over use of laser weapons: New technology is designed to blind the enemy's troops. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 17, p. 1.


Anon. (1995) Defense Department Background Briefing Regarding Non-Lethal Weapons. Attributable to a Senior Military Official Pentagon. February 17. Transcript by the Federal News Service.

Anon. (1995) DoD officials crafting Pentagon's non-lethal policy have no easy task. Inside the Navy September 18 p. 17.

Anon. (1995) DoD position on non-lethal lasers. Department of Defense May 25, p. 1.

Anon. (1995) Draft policy directive spells out DoD's rules for non-lethal weapons. Inside the Pentagon July 13, pp. 1, 8, 9.

Anon. (1995) Eyewash no defense: Lasers still cause concern. International Defense Review July, p. 1.

Anon. (1995) Fighting with new purpose: Marines' new 'experimental' unit looks at future wars. Navy Times May 8, p. 30.

Anon. (1995) Future battlefields. Counterpunch June 1.

Anon. (1995) Hearing on Law Enforcement Technology, Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, May 17. Witnesses testifying include: David Boyd, Director, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Dept of Justice; Harline McEwen, Chief of Police, Ithaca Police Dept., and Chairman, Law Enforcement Technology Advisory Council; Grady Wright, Vice President and General Manager, Integrated Engineering Division, TRW Systems Integration Group, Fairfax, VA; Dennis Miyoshi, Director, Nuclear Security Systems Center, Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Eric Wenaas, President & CEO, JAYCOR, San Diego, CA; Bob Cansler, Chief of Police, Concord Police Dept., Concord NC; and Carl Baker, Deputy Secretary of Public Safety, Governor's Office of Public Safety, Richmond, VA.

Anon. (1995) Keeping tabs on criminals. IEEE Spectrum February, pp. 26-32.

Anon. (1995) Lack of DoD requirements prevents non-lethal technology growth. Aerospace Daily July 28, p. 141.

Anon. (1995) Less-lethal force in Operation United Shield. Marine Corps Gazette September, p. 69.

Anon. (1995) Marines ready to control Somali crowds with non-lethal weapons. Aerospace Daily February 22, p. 273.

Anon. (1995) Marines try a little new wave tenderness. Financial Times March 7, p. 9.

Anon. (1995) Non-lethal acquisition plan in the works. Defense Week August 21, pp. 1, 9.

Anon. (1995) Non-lethal warfare's promises and problems. Christian Science Monitor August 3, p. 19.

Anon. (1995): Non-Lethal weapons: A synopsis. In: Improving the prospects for future international peace operations. Chapter 13. 1st ed. (Ed: Anon.) Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Washington, 115-126.

Anon. (1995) Non-lethal weapons. Peace Action Briefing Paper, July, 1995, 4 pp.

Anon. (1995) Non-lethal weapons and operations: Potential applications and practical limitations. Congressional Research Service Report, September 14, 6 pp.

Anon. (1995) Not-so-lethal weapons: Items for the police catalogue, coming soon to a precinct near you. The New York Times Magazine August 13, pp. 40-41.

Anon. (1995) Now, to the shores of Somalia with beanbag guns and goo. The New York Times February 15, p. A10.

Anon. (1995) Outlaw blinding: Weapons intended to blind soldiers on the battlefield must, like chemical and biological weapons, be banned. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists March/April, p. 4.


Anon. (1995) Over global opposition, U.S. seeks laser arms. Chicago Tribune January 26, p. 1.

Anon. (1995) Panel's report backs non-lethal weapons. Aviation Week & Space Technology October 16. pp. 50-51.

Anon. (1995) Pending DoD decision, lawmakers express angst over non-lethal lasers. Inside the Pentagon June 8. pp. 5-7.

Anon. (1995) Pentagon calls Senate non-lethal plan a killer for CINCs. Defense Week September 18, p. 7.

Anon. (1995) Pentagon explores fighting the enemy with glue, bad odors. Christian Science Monitor June 29, p. 3.

Anon. (1995) Pentagon memo seeks to better explain 'non-lethal' weaponry. Defense Week March 6, p. 5.

Anon. (1995) Pentagon panned for laser guns. Associated Press May 21.

Anon. (1995) SASC provides $37.2 million for new non-lethal weapons office. Aerospace Daily July 28, p. 141.

Anon. (1995) Secret U.S. warhead nearer to fielding. Aviation Week & Space Technology April 3, pp. 62-63.

Anon. (1995) Services crafting guidelines for use of non-lethal technologies. Inside the Pentagon July 27, p. 10.

Anon. (1995) Shoot - but not to kill: Major U.S. study pushes use of non-lethal weapons. Navy Times July 17, p. 32.

Anon. (1995) Support for non-lethal technologies increase among NATO countries. Inside the Pentagon July 27, p. 24.

Anon. (1995) Surrender or we'll slime you. Wired February, pp. 90, 92, 98, 100.

Anon. (1995) Task Force endorses hard look at non-lethal weapons. Defense Week July 3, pp. 9, 13.

Anon. (1995): Technologies to support peacekeeping operations. In: Improving the prospects for future international peace operations. Chapter 12. 1st ed. (Ed: Anon.) Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Washington, 105-114.

Anon. (1995) They're shooting not to kill: Researchers are offering police a wave of non-lethal weapons. Boston Globe October 30. p. 1

Anon. (1995) Turning a blind eye to inhumane weapons. Multinational Monitor Jan/Feb, pp. 20-21.

Anon. (1995) U.S. Army eyes non-lethal weapons for Bosnia mission. Aerospace Daily November 27, p. 310.

Anon. (1995) U.S. Commanders state uses for non-lethal technology. Defense Week January 23, pp. 3, 14.

Anon. (1995) U.S. Marines to focus on urban warfare. Defense News April 10-16, pp. 1, 53.

Anon. (1 995) United States: U.S. Blinding Laser Weapons. Human Rights Watch Arms Project, May, v7, No. 5, 15pp.

Anon. (1995) Use of Nonlethal arms leaves Pentagon scrambling: Policy sought amid denials that a kinder, gentler Marine force is deploying to Somalia. Washington Post February 24, p. A8.

Anon. (1994) Bang! You're alive: An unusual trio for "non-lethal weapons". Scientific American April, pp. 22, 24.

Anon. (1994) CIA asked to review 'Buck Rogers' weapon. Defense Week January 18, p. 6.

Anon. (1994) Crimebusters: Cops put defense technology to work. Air Force Times April 11.


Anon. (1994) Disabling systems and the Air Force. Airpower Journal Fall, pp. 43-47.

Anon. (1994) DoD non-lethal effort fuels fear of treaty violations. Defense News September 26 - October 2, p. 3.

Anon. (1994) DoD to boost non-lethal options. Defense News March 28-April 3, p. 46.

Anon. (1994) Draft non-lethal weapons policy. This 7 pp. memorandum was distributed by Dr. Christopher Lamb, Director, Policy planning, SO/LIC (Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict), Department of Defense, 21 July 1994.

Anon. (1994) Enlisting photonics in the war on crime. Photonics Spectra June, pp. 25-26.

Anon. (1994) How to win wars without actually killing. Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter April-May, pp. 36-37.

Anon. (1994) Justice seeks coercive, but non-lethal options. National Defense January, p. 10.

Anon. (1994) Lasers seen as aid to law enforcement. Laser Focus World September, p. 49.

Anon. (1994) Lasers, viruses, may rule no-fly zone sky. Defense News February 7-13, pp. 1, 45.

Anon. (1994) Non-lethal alternatives weighed by law officers. National Defense May/June, pp. 28-30.

Anon. (1994) Non-lethal Concepts: Implications for Air Force Intelligence. Airpower Journal Winter, 8,n4, pp. 26-33.

Anon. (1994) Non-lethal weapons: Freeze, or I'll fire my sticky-goo gun. Wall Street Journal August 2, p. 1.

Anon. (1994) Non-lethal weapons get a boost. Navy Times October 3, p. 34.

Anon. (1994) 'Non-lethal' weapons, James Bond style. Christian Science Monitor September 6.

Anon. (1994) Non-lethal weapons offer a Faustian bargain. Christian Science Monitor February 7, p. 19.

Anon. (1994) Pentagon, Justice Dept. set plans for sharing non-lethal technology. Washington Post March 23, p. A3.

Anon. (1994) Pentagon maps non-lethal options. International Defense Review July, p. 30.

Anon. (1994) Perry plans to launch non-lethal warfare effort. Defense News September 19-25, p. 6.

Anon. (1994) Perry seeks directive on non-lethal warfare feat. Army Times October 10, p. 34.

Anon. (1994) Police, prisons want cheap non-lethal technologies. Aerospace Daily November 19, pp. 299-300.

Anon. (1994) Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Operations in Built-Up Areas (MOBA). Office of the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology, Washington, DC 20301-3140, November.

Anon. (1994) Secret weapons for the CNN era. Harper's Magazine October, pp. 17-18.

Anon. (1994) The soft-kill fallacy. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists September/October, pp. 40-44.

Anon. (1994) The "soft kill" solution. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists March/April, pp. 4-6.

Anon. (1994) Soon, 'Phasers on Stun'. Newsweek February 7, p. 24.

Anon. (1994) Upping the non-lethal ante: Pentagon funds a new weapons initiative. Armed Forces Journal July, p. 13.

Anon. (1994) US studies non-lethal weapon priorities. Jane's Defence Weekly April 30, p. 14.


Anon. (1993) ALCM's given non-lethal role. Aviation Week & Space Technology February 22, pp. 20-22.

Anon. (1993) Army prepares for non-lethal combat. Aviation Week & Space Technology May 24, p. 62.

Anon. (1993) Disabling systems: Warfighting option for the future. Airpower Journal Spring, pp. 44-50.

Anon. (1993) EMP weapons lead race for non-lethal technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology May 24, p. 61

Anon. (1993) New class of weapons could incapacitate foe yet limit casualties. Wall Street Journal January 4, p. 1.

Anon. (1993) New weapons for a New World Order: The Pentagon looks to non-lethal technology. Boston Globe March 7, p. 70.

Anon. (1993) Non-lethal defense needed in unconventional roles, LANL expert says. Aerospace Daily December 7, pp. 375-376.

Anon. (1993) Non-lethal devices slice across science spectrum: Emerging devices offer alternative to death-dealing weapon systems. National Defense October, p. 25.

Anon. (1993) Non-lethal technologies enhance warrior's punch. National Defense December, pp. 26-29.

Anon. (1993) Non-lethal weapons group set to form in March. Defense Week November 22, pp. 1, 14.

Anon. (1993) Non-lethal weapons: Expanding our options. Marine Corps Gazette December, pp. 61-62.

Anon. (1993) Not so deadly weapons. Los Angeles Times (Wash. Ed) December 20, p. 4.

Anon. (1993) Softer response required as global threats change: Non-lethal approach, technologies offer more acceptable resolution of hostilities. National Defense October, pp. 23-24.

Anon. (1993) U.S. explores Russian mind-control technology. Defense News January 11-17, pp. 4, 29.

Anon. (1993) War over weapons that can't kill. New Scientist December 11, p. 14.

Anon. (1992) ARDEC exploring less-than-lethal munitions: to give Army greater flexibility in future conflicts. News Release No. 92-29, October 9.

Anon. (1992) Army gives a boost to exotic, non-lethal weapons. Defense Week October 19.

Anon. (1992) Bang! Bang! You've been inhibited. National Journal March 28, pp. 758-759.

Anon. (1992) Military studies unusual arsenal. Defense News October 19-25, pp. 3, 44.

Anon. (1992) Non-lethal weapons give peacekeepers flexibility. Aviation Week & Space Technology December 7, pp. 50-51.

Anon. (1992): Tradoc Drafting Concept for Infusing Non-Lethal Warfare into Army Doctrine. In: Inside the Army. February 24, p. 1.

Anon. (1992) USA tries to make war more lethal. Jane's Defence Weekly October 31, p. 10.

Anon. (1992) War without death. National Journal November 7, p. 2589.

Anon. (1972) Non-lethal Weapons for Law Enforcement: Research Needs and Priorities. A Report to the National Science Foundation, Security Planning Corporation, First Printing, March 1972, 68 pp.


Anon. (1970) Non-lethal and Nondestructive Combat in Cities Overseas DAHC 1567 C 0011, Task T-62. Science and Technology Division, May 1970, IDA Paper P-569. Contact National Technical Information Center for copy.

Arkin, William (1995) Ban Tactical Laser Weapons: DoD maintains blinding is not violation of war. Defense News July 17-23, p. 20.

Barry, John L, Col; Everett, Michael W, LtC; Peck, Allen G, Lt Col (1994) Non-lethal military means: new leverage for a new era. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, National Security Program, Policy Analysis Paper 94-01, 1994, 35 pages.

Boyd, David (1994) Talking points. delivered by David Boyd for Janet Reno, November 17.

Cook, Joseph,W Maj; Fiely, David P; McGowan, Maura T, Maj (1995) Non-lethal weapons: Technologies, Legalities and Potential Policies. Airpower Journal Special Edition, 9, pp. 77-91.

Frost, Gerald Dr; Shipbaugh, Calvin Dr (1994) GPS targeting methods for non-lethal systems. RP-262, February 1, 1994, 8 pp.

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Human Rights Watch (1995) Blinding Laser Weapons: The Need To Ban A Cruel and Inhumane Weapons. Human Rights Watch Arms Project Vol.7, No.1, September, p. 43.

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b) Riot Control Weapons

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