22 June 2004
Source: Digital file from Southern District Reporters Office; (212) 805-0300.
Note: Transcripts were not provided between 1 June and 21 June, 2004.
This is the transcript of Day 10; jury selection was completed and the trial commenced.
See other transcripts: http://cryptome.org/usa-v-ssy-dt.htm
Lynne Stewart web site with case documents: http://www.lynnestewart.org/
2090 46MMSAT1 1 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 1 SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK 2 -------------------------------------x 2 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 3 3 v. S1 02 Cr. 395 (JGK) 4 4 AHMED ABDEL SATTAR, a/k/a "Abu Omar," 5 a/k/a "Dr. Ahmed," LYNNE STEWART, 5 and MOHAMMED YOUSRY, 6 6 Defendants. 7 -------------------------------------x 7 8 June 22, 2004 8 9:45 a.m. 9 9 10 10 Before: 11 HON. JOHN G. KOELTL 11 12 District Judge 12 13 13 APPEARANCES 14 14 DAVID N. KELLEY 15 United States Attorney for the 15 Southern District of New York 16 ROBIN BAKER 16 CHRISTOPHER MORVILLO 17 ANTHONY BARKOW 17 ANDREW DEMBER 18 Assistant United States Attorneys 18 19 KENNETH A. PAUL 19 BARRY M. FALLICK 20 Attorneys for Defendant Sattar 20 21 MICHAEL TIGAR 21 JILL R. SHELLOW-LAVINE 22 Attorneys for Defendant Stewart 22 23 DAVID STERN 23 DAVID A. RUHNKE 24 Attorneys for Defendant Yousry 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2091 46MMSAT1 1 (Trial resumed) 2 (In the robing room) 3 THE COURT: Good morning, all. It is good to see you 4 all. 5 My deputy informs me that juror No. 13, seat 4 has 6 something to bring to my attention. I have no idea what that 7 is. I don't talk to jurors by myself. And I would have one of 8 the lawyers for each of the parties and the parties themselves, 9 if the parties wanted them to be here, be in the room in the 10 back while I brought the juror in and asked the juror what it 11 is that the juror wanted to bring to my attention. 12 MR. PAUL: I don't think we want our clients here, 13 Judge. 14 MR. RUHNKE: That goes for us, too, your Honor. 15 THE COURT: Make sure that they waive their presence 16 then and then we will just have four lawyers here and I'll 17 explain it to the jury that I always have the lawyers here when 18 I talk to the juror. Don't be concerned about that. 19 Before we bring the juror in, Mr. Fletcher mentioned 20 one other thing to me that I want to bring to your attention, 21 and that is that the jurors want to disclose their names to 22 each other, or else refer to each other as nicknames, rather 23 than having to refer to each other by number. I have no 24 problem with the jurors telling each other their names. They 25 are simply not to disclose them to anyone else other than jury SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2092 46MMSAT1 1 administrators and the marshals for purposes of transportation. 2 I'm happy to include that in my initial instructions to them. 3 MR. STERN: This not being a fraternity, I think they 4 should call each other by their real names. 5 THE COURT: Good. I agree. Let's bring in juror No. 6 13. 7 MR. FALLICK: Your Honor, do you want us to stand when 8 the juror comes in? 9 THE COURT: Whatever you are comfortable with. I 10 stand, but it really doesn't make a difference. 11 (Juror No. 13 present) 12 THE COURT: Juror No. 13, please have a seat. 13 Mr. Fletcher indicated there is something that you wanted to 14 bring to my attention. And whenever I talk to a juror I always 15 have the lawyers present. 16 A JUROR: The main issue that has influenced me, I 17 would say, is hearing on May 22 at a family gathering that my 18 older brother, who works for a freight airline, he told me on 19 the side that he is flying into Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Qatar 20 on a regular basis, sometimes secretly and sometimes at night. 21 He is also flying into Entebbe in Africa for the CIA. 22 Fast forwarding that, it was not in the questionnaire. 23 I think the questionnaire was way before May 22. When you 24 asked the other day, has anything changed, this was in the back 25 of my mind. The previous questions were, could I overlook SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2093 46MMSAT1 1 certain things like the 9/11 event and being impartial and I 2 said then yes the other day. When you asked again, which was 3 just yesterday, had anything changed, I did not bring it up. 4 Once I was selected and seated in the jury area, I 5 realized that I could not be impartial at that time. I was 6 looking at the prosecutors thinking, I'm on the same side and 7 that thought has stayed with me more since then. If things 8 hadn't changed radically in Saudi Arabia in the last week or so 9 with the Johnson incident, I think I would not be as shaking as 10 I find myself now. But I also have to say that I thought since 11 then they had said all American business-related trips were no 12 longer going to Saudi Arabia. I did call my brother last 13 night. I did not mention specifically the case. I said I had 14 to know if he is still traveling, and he is. 15 THE COURT: You have not discussed this with any of 16 the other jurors, have you? 17 A JUROR: No. 18 THE COURT: Could you step outside. 19 (Juror No. 13 not present) 20 THE COURT: I'll excuse the juror. 21 MR. STERN: Judge, I have spoken with the other 22 defendants and we believe that we are entitled to a mistrial. 23 We picked this jury. While I'm not saying this juror lied to 24 us, because I don't believe he lied to us, I believe in 25 selecting this jury we assume we had all the information we SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2094 46MMSAT1 1 needed to pick a jury. In fact we didn't. We are now -- not 2 that we didn't pick the alternates, because obviously we did 3 pick the alternates. They are picked in a way that gives you 4 much less leeway as to who to choose and who not to choose. I 5 think we are all asking for a mistrial. 6 MR. DEMBER: I'm opposing it. This has obviously just 7 developed, certainly came to a head this morning with this 8 juror. He was open and honest about it and we are stuck with 9 the situation that nobody could have predicted. These things 10 happen during the course of trials and there is no basis for a 11 mistrial at this point. 12 MR. STERN: This isn't during the course of the trial 13 yet. No one has opened. All we have done is selected the 14 jury. 15 MR. DEMBER: And the jury has been sworn, your Honor. 16 THE COURT: I agree with that. There is no basis for 17 a mistrial. 18 Based upon what the juror has told us now, the juror 19 should be excused now. People don't disagree that the juror 20 should be excused now, right? 21 MR. STERN: Correct. 22 MR. DEMBER: Correct, your Honor. 23 THE COURT: And we went through a thorough and 24 extensive voir dire of all of the jurors, And we had sworn the 25 jury. And if a problem is disclosed to us after that occurred, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2095 46MMSAT1 1 we excuse the juror and seat the first alternate. 2 MR. STERN: Judge, I'm not quibbling with your ruling. 3 I want to be clear, they were asked on the questionnaire if 4 they knew anyone who lived or worked in the Middle East or that 5 area. He didn't tell us that. He knew a while ago, apparently 6 May 22 at least, that his brother worked in the Middle East 7 flying in and out of the Middle East. So we did make our 8 selections based -- I don't want to seem like I'm accusing him 9 of anything. I don't believe he purposely withheld any 10 information. But we did pick this jury based on this 11 information or maybe, more accurately, lack of information. 12 THE COURT: As I said before, it was a thorough and 13 fair jury selection process. The juror, thinking about it, 14 forthrightly brought forward now a problem and disclosed it in 15 a sense of utter fairness. And so the proper means to address 16 that is to excuse the juror. Everyone agrees that the juror 17 should be excused and to seat the first alternate, who is juror 18 No. 153. And I will excuse juror No. 13 and tell him that he 19 can go home. Mr. Fletcher will tell juror 153 to take seat No. 20 4, and I will tell the jurors that I've excused juror No. 13 21 and that they are not to speculate on the reasons that I have 22 done that. It has nothing to do with anything that they will 23 have to decide in the case. You want me to tell the jury 24 anything else? 25 MR. DEMBER: No, your Honor. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2096 46MMSAT1 1 MR. STERN: No. 2 MR. TIGAR: Your Honor, I assume it will be a matter 3 of public record. Your Honor has denied a mistrial and so on. 4 THE COURT: Well, that's -- we are keeping a 5 transcript and no one has asked that the transcript be sealed. 6 And the juror's anonymity is protected. 7 MR. STERN: Can we have two minutes to tell my client 8 what happened? 9 THE COURT: Sure. 10 We have to bring back juror No. 13, too. Juror No. 13 11 is excused. 12 (Juror No. 13 present) 13 THE COURT: I appreciate you bringing this to my 14 attention and I will excuse you and you are able to go home 15 now. 16 Obviously, in leaving, you shouldn't go back into the 17 jury room and don't talk to any of the other jurors. And, 18 again, I appreciate your bringing this to my attention. Thank 19 you. 20 A JUROR: I apologize for the confusion it may have 21 caused. 22 (Juror No. 13 excused) 23 MR. FALLICK: Your Honor, given where Mr. Sattar and I 24 sit, we would request that everyone use a microphone. The 25 acoustics are not the greatest in that courtroom. We are all SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2097 46MMSAT1 1 the way at the end. We would like everybody to use the 2 microphone as much as possible. 3 THE COURT: Sure. 4 (In open court; jury not present) 5 THE COURT: Mr. Fletcher. 6 (Case called) 7 MR. MORVILLO: Good morning, your Honor, Christopher 8 Morvillo, Anthony Barkow, Andrew Dember, and Robin Baker for 9 the government. 10 MR. TIGAR: Good morning, your Honor, Michael Tigar 11 and Jill Shellow-Lavine for Lynne Stewart, who is present in 12 court. 13 MR. STERN: David Stern and David Ruhnke for Mohammed 14 Yousry, who is also present in court. 15 MR. FALLICK: Barry Fallick and Barry Paul for 16 Mr. Sattar. 17 THE COURT: Good morning, all. It is good to see you. 18 We are ready to bring in the jury. 19 THE DEPUTY CLERK: Yes, your Honor. 20 THE COURT: Do the parties want the case called to 21 announce themselves to the jury? 22 MR. RUHNKE: I don't see any reason to do that, Judge. 23 THE COURT: I introduced all before. 24 (Jury present) 25 THE COURT: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2098 46MMSAT1 1 It is good to see you all. 2 Members of the jury, now that you have been sworn, I 3 will briefly tell you something about your duties as jurors and 4 give you some instructions. At the end of the trial I will 5 give you more detailed instructions and those instructions will 6 control your deliberations. At the end of the presentation of 7 the evidence and my final charge to you it will be your duty to 8 decide from the evidence what the facts are and whether the 9 government has proved beyond a reasonable doubt that the 10 defendants have committed the crimes charged against them. 11 The fact that three people have been charged means 12 nothing in terms of whether the charges are true or not. Each 13 of the three people accused has pleaded not guilty to the 14 charges. Each is presumed to be innocent. And although all 15 three are being tried together, each of them is entitled to 16 your individual consideration of his or her own individual 17 case. 18 You, and you alone, are the judges of the facts. You 19 will hear the evidence, decide what the facts are, and then 20 apply those facts to the law which I will give to you. That is 21 how you will reach your verdict. In doing so you must follow 22 that law, whether you agree with it or not. You must not take 23 anything I may say or do during the trial as indicating what 24 your verdict should be. 25 Please don't be influenced by my taking notes. I take SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2099 46MMSAT1 1 lots of notes. But what I write down may have nothing to do 2 with what you will be concerned with at the trial. 3 I would like to introduce you at the outset to some of 4 the court staff who you will see during the course of the 5 trial. As I explained to you yesterday, Mr. Don Fletcher is 6 the deputy clerk. As I also explained to you yesterday during 7 the trial, he will be responsible for giving the oath to 8 witnesses before they testify and keeping track of exhibits. 9 As you saw yesterday, we take the oath with extreme 10 importance. I ask everyone to watch carefully when the oath is 11 given. I ask people to put down their pens and pencils and 12 watch when a witness is sworn. Mr. Fletcher will swear the 13 witnesses. As I told you yesterday, importantly, from your 14 perspective, he will bring the jurors into and out of the 15 courtroom each time the jurors enter or leave the courtroom. 16 In the unlikely event that it is necessary for a juror to bring 17 something to the attention of the Court, the juror should 18 convey that to Mr. Fletcher, but please do not tell any other 19 juror about any matter you believe necessary to bring to the 20 Court's attention. 21 You should also not talk to Mr. Fletcher or indeed any 22 of the court staff about the substance of this case or any of 23 your views about the case. You should also remember never to 24 disclose your name or address to Mr. Fletcher or indeed any of 25 the court staff. That information is given only to the jury SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2100 46MMSAT1 1 administrator's office and to the marshals for purposes of 2 transportation. 3 As I mentioned yesterday, I also instruct you not to 4 talk to the marshals about the substance or details of the 5 case, including scheduling. While the marshals will arrange 6 for transportation for you, you are not to talk to them about 7 anything to do with the case, including scheduling. 8 I would also like to introduce you to my law clerks, 9 Jonathan Martin and David Carpenter, who will be with us during 10 the course of the trial and you will see them sitting there. 11 Right now I ask you to pay close attention to these 12 preliminary instructions. First, some very preliminary 13 matters. I have excused juror No. 13 who was in seat 4, and 14 juror 153 is now in that seat. You are not to speculate on the 15 reason that I have done that. It has nothing to do with 16 anything you will have to decide. So I emphasize to you, you 17 are simply not to speculate about that. 18 I have also been told that you have asked whether you 19 can disclose your names to each other. Yes, of course, you can 20 disclose your names to each other. But, again, I emphasize, do 21 not disclose them to anyone else here at the courthouse. The 22 people with that information, as I mentioned to you, are the 23 jury administrator's office and the marshals for purposes of 24 transportation. 25 If you have any problem with respect to the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2101 46MMSAT1 1 temperature here in the courtroom, please let Mr. Fletcher know 2 and we will attempt to resolve that for you and attempt to make 3 any necessary arrangements. It is not always possible in a 4 large courtroom such as this, but we will try to do whatever we 5 can for you to make things comfortable for you. 6 Ladies and gentlemen, you will decide what the facts 7 are from the evidence that will be presented here in court. 8 That evidence will consist of the testimony of witnesses, 9 documents and other things received into evidence as exhibits, 10 and any facts upon which the lawyers agree or to which they 11 stipulate, or any facts about which I take judicial notice. 12 There are two kinds of evidence, direct and 13 circumstantial. Direct evidence is testimony by a witness 14 about what that witness personally saw or heard or did. 15 Circumstantial evidence is indirect evidence, that is, it is 16 proof of one or more facts from which you can find another 17 fact. You may consider both direct and circumstantial evidence 18 in deciding this case. The law permits you to give equal 19 weight to both or to none, or it is up to you to decide how 20 much weight, if any, to give to any evidence. 21 As the sole judges of the facts you must determine 22 which of the witnesses you believe, what portion of their 23 testimony you accept, and what weight you attach to it. At 24 times during the trial I may sustain objections to questions 25 asked. When that happens I will not permit the witness to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2102 46MMSAT1 1 answer or, if the witness has already answered, I shall 2 instruct that the answer be stricken from the record and that 3 you disregard it and dismiss it from your minds. 4 In reaching your decision you may not draw any 5 inference from an unanswered question, nor may you consider 6 testimony that I have ordered stricken from the record. The 7 items I exclude from your consideration will be excluded 8 because they are not legally admissible as evidence. 9 The law requires that your decision be made solely 10 upon the evidence before you. The law does not, however, 11 require you to accept all of the evidence that I do admit. 12 You, as the finders of fact, must make your own evaluation of 13 the testimony given by each of the witnesses and of the 14 documents presented to you, and determine the weight, if any, 15 you choose to give to each witness's testimony or to an 16 exhibit. 17 There is no magical formula by which you should 18 evaluate testimony or exhibits. I will, however, give you some 19 guidelines for determining the credibility of witnesses at the 20 end of the case. At this time, suffice it to say, you bring 21 with you to this courtroom all of the experience and background 22 of your lives. You do not have to leave your common sense 23 outside the courtroom. The same types of tests that you use in 24 your everyday dealings are the tests that you will apply in 25 your deliberations. Please, watch the witnesses very carefully SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2103 46MMSAT1 1 and listen to everything that is said. 2 You should also understand what is not evidence. As 3 I've explained, the questions and objections of the attorneys 4 are not evidence and neither is the testimony I instruct you to 5 disregard. The statements and arguments of the attorneys 6 during any part of the trial are also not evidence. 7 (Continued on next page) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2104 46MSSAT2 1 Further, anything you may see or hear when the court 2 is not in session, even what you see or hear is done or said by 3 one of the parties or by one of the witnesses, is not evidence. 4 Only what is admitted into evidence here when court is in 5 session and all of the parties and jurors are present is 6 competent evidence. 7 Anything you may have heard, seen or read outside the 8 evidence presented here in court is not evidence. You must put 9 aside anything you have seen, heard or read and decide this 10 case based solely on the evidence presented here in court when 11 court is in session and all of the parties and jurors are 12 present. 13 Please remember, this is a criminal case. As I have 14 previously mentioned during your selection, the defendants have 15 been charged with the commission of federal crimes in an 16 indictment filed by a grand jury. An indictment, however, is 17 simply a description of the charges. It is not evidence of 18 anything. The defendants have pleaded not guilty to the 19 charges and deny committing the offenses. The defendants are 20 presumed innocent and the government will have to prove the 21 defendants guilty beyond a reasonable doubt on every element of 22 the charges in the indictment. 23 As I explained, the indictment is not evidence. It is 24 simply a description of the charges. The indictment in this 25 case sets forth a total of seven charges, each of which is SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2105 46MSSAT2 1 called a count, against the three defendants -- Ahmed Abdel 2 Sattar, Lynne Stewart and Mohammed Yousry. All of the charges 3 relate to another individual named Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, 4 who is sometimes referred to as the Blind Sheikh. 5 The indictment alleges that Abdel Rahman was viewed as 6 a leader and religious scholar by others who followed and 7 associated with him, including members of an Egypt based group 8 known as al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya or the Islamic Group. 9 In 1995, Abdel Rahman was tried and found guilty of 10 federal crimes. The indictment alleges that defendant Ahmed 11 Abdel Sattar has known Abdel Rahman since before Abdel Rahman 12 was arrested in 1993. The indictment alleges that defendant 13 Lynne Stewart was one of Abdel Rahman's defense attorneys 14 during his 1995 trial and that she continued to act as one of 15 his attorneys after his conviction. The indictment alleges 16 that defendant Mohammed Yousry testified as a defense witness 17 at Abdel Rahman's 1995 criminal trial and starting in or about 18 1997 acted as an Arabic interpreter for communications between 19 Abdel Rahman and his attorneys. 20 The indictment alleges that Abdel Rahman is serving 21 his prison sentence under more restrictive conditions than 22 other prisoners. These conditions, which are known as special 23 administrative measures -- or SAMs for short -- limited certain 24 of Abdel Rahman's privileges in prison, including his access to 25 the mail, the media, the telephone, and visitors. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2106 46MSSAT2 1 The charges against the defendants in this case relate 2 to their alleged dealings with Abdel Rahman from 1997 through 3 2002, which was after he was tried, convicted and sentenced and 4 after the SAMs were imposed upon him. 5 Count 1 charges that from in or about June 1997 6 through in or about April 2002, all three defendants conspired 7 with each other and with other people to defraud the United 8 States by impeding and by obstructing, by trickery, deceit and 9 dishonest means, the lawful and legitimate functions of the 10 United States Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of 11 Prisons in the administration and enforcement of the SAMs 12 imposed on Abdel Rahman. 13 The indictment alleges that as part of this agreement 14 the defendants passed communications between Abdel Rahman and 15 others with whom he was barred from communicating, including 16 the media. 17 Counts 2 and 3 charge only defendant Ahmed Abdel 18 Sattar. 19 Count 2 charges that from in or about September 1999 20 through in or about April 2002, Sattar conspired with Abdel 21 Rahman, and with other people who were not named as defendants 22 in this case, to kill and kidnap people in a foreign country. 23 Count 3 charges that from in or about September 1999 24 through in or about April 2002, Sattar solicited, commanded, 25 induced or otherwise endeavored to persuade other people to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2107 46MSSAT2 1 commit crimes of violence. 2 Counts 4 and 5 charge that defendants Lynne Stewart 3 and Mohammed Yousry conspired to and did provide and conceal 4 material support and resources to terrorist activity. 5 Specifically Counts 4 and 5 charge that Stewart and Yousry 6 agreed to and did provide personnel by agreeing to make, and by 7 making, Abdel Rahman available to participate in or to prepare 8 for the conspiracy charged in Count 2, which is the conspiracy 9 to kill and kidnap people in a foreign country. 10 Counts 4 and 5 also charge that Stewart and Yousry 11 agreed to and did conceal and disguise the nature, location and 12 source of personnel by agreeing to conceal and disguise, and by 13 concealing and disguising, that Abdel Rahman was participating 14 in or preparing for the conspiracy charged in Count 2. 15 Counts 4 and 5 allege that Stewart and Yousry acted 16 with the knowledge and intent that such material support and 17 resources were to be used to prepare for and carry out the 18 conspiracy charged in Count 2. 19 Counts 6 and 7 charge only defendant Lynne Stewart 20 with making false statements to the United States Department of 21 Justice and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Specifically Count 22 6 charges that in or about May 2000, Stewart made materially 23 false, fictitious and fraudulent statements and representations 24 and made and used a false writing and document by submitting a 25 written affirmation that falsely stated, among other things, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2108 46MSSAT2 1 that she agreed to abide by the terms of the SAMs applicable to 2 Abdel Rahman. 3 Count 7 charges that Stewart committed the same 4 offense by submitting another such written affirmation in or 5 about May 2001. 6 I remind you, as I did in the course of your selection 7 as jurors in this case, this is only a summary of the charges 8 against the defendants. Each of the defendants has pleaded not 9 guilty to the charges and each of the defendants denies 10 committing the offenses. And each of the defendants is 11 presumed to be innocent of all of the charges in the 12 indictment. 13 At the conclusion of the trial, I will give you a 14 detailed description of the charges together with the 15 instructions on the law that you must follow. 16 A preliminary word about your duties and trial 17 procedures. 18 I have already instructed you that the function of the 19 jury is to decide the disputed fact issues in the case. 20 Obviously in order to discharge this duty it is important that 21 you listen carefully to the witnesses as they testify and form 22 no judgment with respect to any witness or the outcome of the 23 case as the trial moves forward. In short, it is important to 24 keep an open mind throughout the entire trial. 25 I also usually suggest that it is equally important to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2109 46MSSAT2 1 observe the witnesses as they testify. The reason for this is 2 that the credibility of most witnesses, if not all, will be an 3 issue. You will be called upon to appraise the credibility and 4 the truthfulness of a particular witness' testimony. 5 Oftentimes it is not what a witness says but how the witness 6 says it that may give you a clue as to whether or not to accept 7 the witness' version of an incident or an event as credible or 8 believable. 9 In short, the witness' manner of testifying before 10 you, the witness' appearance -- that is, the witness general 11 demeanor -- is a factor that may play an important part in your 12 reaching a judgment as to whether or not you can accept the 13 witness' testimony as reliable. 14 As the trial proceeds, you may have impressions of a 15 witness or a subject, but you must not allow those impressions 16 to become fixed or hardened because if you do in a sense you 17 foreclose consideration of the testimony of other witnesses or 18 other evidence that may come in subsequent to the witness you 19 heard. This would be unfair to one side or the other. A case 20 can be presented only step by step, witness by witness before 21 the totality of all evidence is before you. 22 We know from experience that frequently we will hear a 23 person give that person's version of an event which sounds most 24 impressive and even compelling and yet when we hear another 25 person's version of the same event, or even the same witness SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2110 46MSSAT2 1 cross examined with respect to it, what seems so very 2 compelling and impressive may be completely dissipated or 3 weakened. 4 I am simply saying or trying to say to you in very 5 simple terms, remember that usually there may be another side 6 to every story. Think of the old adage there are usually two 7 sides to every story, and remember you will not have heard both 8 sides of any version until all the evidence in the case has 9 been presented. Thus, it is important to keep an open mind 10 throughout the taking of evidence. 11 In order to assure that you continue to keep an open 12 mind you are not -- and the court now instructs you -- to 13 discuss the case among yourselves during the progress of the 14 trial, to discuss the evidence or any aspect of the case, or 15 talk to any of the witnesses in the case or anyone about the 16 case or permit anyone to talk to you about the case. This 17 instruction about not discussing the case with others or 18 permitting others to talk to you about it extends to members of 19 your own family or friends. It remains in effect whether I 20 refer to it again or not. 21 The only time you are permitted to discuss or consider 22 the case is when it is submitted for your final consideration 23 and that is after all the witnesses have been heard and after 24 the lawyers who represent the parties have appeared before you 25 and summed up, as we term it. Giving their views as to what SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2111 46MSSAT2 1 the evidence supports as to a fact finding and after of course, 2 and also importantly, the court's instructions as to the law. 3 It is only when the case is submitted to you for determination 4 and you go into the jury room that you have the right to 5 discuss or consider the evidence and make your fact 6 determination. 7 If you want to take notes during the course of the 8 trial, you may do so. But you are under absolutely no 9 obligation to take notes. We are keeping an official 10 transcript that you will have the right to review in the course 11 of your deliberations. If you do take notes, be sure that your 12 taking of notes does not interfere with your listening to and 13 considering all of the evidence. 14 Also, if you take notes do not discuss them with 15 anyone before or during your deliberations. Your notes are to 16 be used solely to assist you and are not to substitute for your 17 recollection of the evidence in the case. The fact that a 18 particular juror has taken notes entitles that juror's views to 19 no greater weight than those of any other juror. And your 20 notes are not to be shown to any other juror during the course 21 of deliberations. 22 If you choose not to take notes, remember, you should 23 rely upon your own memory of what has been said. Do not be 24 influenced by the notes of other jurors. Some people remember 25 better when they don't take notes. Just because one juror SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2112 46MSSAT2 1 takes notes doesn't mean that those notes are a better 2 reflection of what happened in court than your own memory is. 3 If during deliberations you have any doubt as to any of the 4 testimony, you will be permitted to review the official trial 5 transcript that is being made of these proceedings. 6 We will provide all of you with pads and pens so that 7 you will be able to take notes if you choose. When you leave 8 at night, please leave your notes in the jury room. We will 9 provide each of you with a manila envelope in which to place 10 your notes when you leave each evening. We will only 11 distribute the pads and pens after the lawyers give their 12 opening statements because, as I have told you, what the 13 lawyers say is not evidence. 14 The defendants, their attorneys, and the government 15 attorneys are not to speak to jurors or to speak about the case 16 in a juror's presence. Thus, you should understand that if 17 they fail to acknowledge your presence or if they walk away 18 from a place that you are in, they are not being impolite or 19 discourteous. They are simply following the order of the 20 court. 21 Now a word about publicity. There may be some 22 publicity about this case. I am sure you understand from what 23 I have said during the selection of the jury that cases are 24 tried in the courtroom under prescribed rules of procedure and 25 not in the press or on the radio, on television or on the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2113 46MSSAT2 1 Internet. You must not be influenced by anything you may have 2 seen or heard outside the courtroom. You are in the best 3 position of anyone to listen to what the witnesses testify to. 4 You will see these witnesses sworn. They will take a solemn 5 oath before you to tell you the truth, the whole truth, and 6 nothing but the truth. You will hear all of their testimony. 7 Certainly there isn't anything that anyone can print, say over 8 the radio or television that would give you more information 9 than what you hear from the lips of the witnesses in this 10 courtroom and such exhibits as come into the case under 11 prescribed rules. 12 Often the news media will print matters which they 13 deem are significant when truly they are not significant. And 14 often a writer will emphasize a point which may even 15 misconstrue the testimony of a key witness, and sometimes in 16 stories about a trial there are even inaccuracies. 17 You are instructed not to read, listen to or watch 18 news reports concerning the case. If you should unavoidably 19 see an item disregard it and put it out of your mind. The fact 20 is that from your seat you are in the best position to hear and 21 see what goes on hear and you can get only the evidence you are 22 entitled to take into account in deciding the fact issues in 23 the case. 24 This instruction too continues throughout the entire 25 trial whether or not I repeat it to you. Please remember that. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2114 46MSSAT2 1 Do not do any research on your own about this case or visit any 2 place described during the trial. 3 Finally, if any person should attempt to communicate 4 with you or talk to you about the case it is your duty to 5 report that immediately to me and to no one else. You should 6 report it to me through my deputy, Don Fletcher. 7 As I did yesterday, because of the importance of these 8 instructions, let me summarize them again for you. These 9 instructions will continue to apply throughout the trial even 10 if I do not repeat them. 11 First, do not talk to each other about this case or 12 about anyone who has anything to do with it until the end of 13 the case when you go to the jury room to decide on your 14 verdict. 15 Second, do not talk with anyone else about this case 16 or about anyone who has anything to do with it until the trial 17 has ended and you have been discharged as jurors. "Anyone 18 else" includes members of your family and your friends. You 19 may tell them that you are a juror in a case but please don't 20 tell them anything else about it until after you have been 21 discharged by me. 22 Third, do not let anyone talk to you about the case or 23 about anyone who has anything to do with it. If someone should 24 try to talk to you please report it to me immediately through 25 my deputy clerk, Don Fletcher. You should not, however, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2115 46MSSAT2 1 discuss with your fellow jurors either that fact or any other 2 fact that you feel necessary to bring to the attention of the 3 court. 4 Fourth, do not converse, whether in or out of the 5 courtroom, with any of the lawyers, the defendants or the 6 witnesses. By this I mean not only do not talk about the case, 7 I mean do not converse at all, even to pass the time of day. I 8 have instructed all of the lawyers, the defendants, and the 9 witnesses that they are not to speak to you or even acknowledge 10 you with a hello or good morning outside the courtroom. 11 Therefore, do not hold it against them if they ignore you or 12 should leave an area which you are in. They are simply 13 following my instructions. The reason for this rule is very 14 simple. Someone watching from a distance might not hear what 15 is said between an attorney and a juror and even a pleasantry 16 could thereby create a misimpression. 17 Fifth, do not read any news stories or articles or 18 listen to any radio or television reports about the case or 19 about anyone who has anything to do with it. If you should see 20 or hear something inadvertently simply turn away and put it out 21 of your mind. 22 Of course, this refers also to any reports on the 23 Internet. Do not look at any such reports. If you should see 24 or hear something inadvertently, simply turn away and put it 25 out of your mind. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2116 46MSSAT2 1 Sixth, do not do any research or any investigation 2 about the case on your own. Do not go to visit any place 3 described during the trial. The reason for these rules is 4 fairly simple. The parties are entitled to have you personally 5 render a verdict in this case on the basis of your independent 6 evaluation of the evidence presented here in the courtroom 7 after your deliberations with the other jurors. Obviously 8 speaking to others, including your family and friends, outside 9 of the deliberation process, or exposing yourself to evidence 10 or information outside the courtroom, would compromise your 11 service and fairness to the parties. 12 Now a word about trial procedure. 13 The trial proper will start with what are called 14 opening statements. The attorneys representing the government 15 and the attorneys representing the defendant will, before any 16 evidence is received, appear before you and make opening 17 statements. This is a sort of framework or reference as to 18 what the case is about, the issues in the case, and the 19 attorneys will set forth what they believe. And I underscore 20 the word "believe" the evidence will show. These statements by 21 the lawyers are made in good faith and on the basis of their 22 preparation for trial. But I must caution you now, and 23 probably will again during the course of the trial, that 24 however helpful these opening statements may be so that we can 25 follow the testimony with reference to the issues in the case, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2117 46MSSAT2 1 they are not a substitute for the evidence. 2 The only evidence that you may act upon is that which 3 you will hear from a witness who will be sworn in your 4 presence, take an oath to tell the truth, and following the 5 questioning on direct examination is subject to cross 6 examination, and such documents or exhibits as are admitted in 7 evidence. The totality of the testimony of witnesses, the 8 exhibits and any stipulations that the parties agree upon, or 9 any facts of which I take judicial notice, constitute the 10 evidence upon which you will reach a verdict in the case. So, 11 too, if during the course of the trial a lawyer for either the 12 government or the defense should make any statement with 13 reference to a fact matter or include a fact reference in a 14 question or eventually in the lawyer's summation refers to fact 15 matters, you will bear in mind that statements by the lawyers 16 are not evidence. The sole and only evidence is that to which 17 I have already referred. 18 After the opening statements the government will offer 19 its proof. That is called the government's direct case. Upon 20 the conclusion of the government's case, the defendants may, if 21 they wish, present evidence. I may permit the government to 22 introduce rebuttal evidence. 23 A defendant is not required to make an opening 24 statement or offer any proof. As I have already told you, the 25 defendants have no burden of proof. Each defendant is presumed SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2118 46MSSAT2 1 to be innocent of the charges. The sole burden of proof is 2 upon the government and to sustain its charges it must do so 3 beyond a reasonable doubt. 4 If a defendant decides not to make an opening 5 statement or offer any proof that is completely up to the 6 defendant and in no respect may this be considered against a 7 defendant. 8 Upon the conclusion of all the testimony, the lawyers 9 will again address you. This is called a summation and each 10 will urge upon you the arguments that the lawyer believed 11 supports whatever position the lawyer advocates. You will, of 12 course, listen attentively to the lawyers. The determination 13 as to whether or not you accept any argument advanced before 14 you by the prosecution or the defense is entirely up to you. 15 You make the fact determination. You may accept such arguments 16 as appeal to you; if not, you reject them. 17 Following the lawyers' summations, the court will 18 instruct you as to the law and it is then that you go into the 19 jury room and undertake your fact-finding function. The 20 ultimate decision in finding the facts, deciding the facts, is 21 yours. This must be based upon the evidence presented before 22 you. Please, please do not make up your mind about what the 23 verdict should be until you have heard all of the evidence, I 24 have instructed you on the law at the end of the case, and you 25 have deliberated with your fellow jurors. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2119 46MSSAT2 1 Please keep an open mind until then. All parties 2 deserve -- and the law requires -- that you give them an 3 opportunity to be fully heard. 4 Yesterday I explained the general trial mechanics. We 5 meet from 9:30 until 12:45 and from 2 until 4:30 usually Monday 6 through Thursday. The marshals will arrange for your 7 transportation. I gave you emergency telephone numbers. I 8 remind you again that if you need to call give us only your 9 juror identification number, not your name or address or 10 telephone number. The jury administrator can always contact 11 you and neither I or my staff need your name, address or 12 telephone number, and you should not give it to us. 13 That concludes the preliminary instructions, ladies 14 and gentlemen, and we now turn to the phase of the trial which 15 I explained to you in which the parties are given the 16 opportunity to explain to you what they believe the evidence in 17 the case will show or not show. 18 As I explained to you, the opening statements are not 19 evidence. They are statements by lawyers which you should 20 listen to attentively, but they are not evidence. They are 21 statements by the lawyers about what they expect the evidence 22 to show or not show in this case. 23 Just in terms of timing, it may be that in the course 24 of one or more of the openings it comes a time for us to take a 25 break either in the middle of the morning or in the middle of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2120 46MSSAT2 1 the afternoon and I simply alert you to that fact. The lawyers 2 are certainly welcome, if they think that it's an appropriate 3 time for all of us to take a break, to ask for a break in the 4 middle of an opening. 5 We always, ladies and gentlemen, attempt to make 6 things comfortable for you and if at any time in the course of 7 the trial any juror needs a break, please just raise your hand 8 and we will attempt to accommodate that in terms of a break. 9 And I simply alert that to you in view of the fact that we are 10 about to start on the opening statements. 11 The first opening statement will be given on behalf of 12 the government by Mr. Morvillo. 13 Mr. Morvillo. 14 MR. MORVILLO: Your Honor, this may be an ominous way 15 to start, but may we have a brief side bar? 16 THE COURT: No. I am perfectly happy to take a break 17 rather than to take a side bar. 18 MR. MORVILLO: That is what I was going to ask at the 19 side bar, a very brief break. 20 THE COURT: Ladies and gentlemen, I told you that 21 there might be breaks, and this is a convenient time for us to 22 take a break. 23 Ladies and gentlemen, I often -- often, but perhaps 24 not always -- repeat the instructions which are so important to 25 me. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2121 46MSSAT2 1 As I told you, the instructions are continuing even if 2 I don't repeat them before every break but they are so 3 important to me that I tend to repeat them a lot. 4 Don't talk about this case at all and remember always 5 to keep an open mind until you have heard all of the evidence, 6 I have instructed you on the law, and you have gone into the 7 jury room to begin your deliberations. 8 Have a good break. 9 All rise please. 10 (Jury left the courtroom) 11 THE COURT: I will see you shortly. 12 (Recess) 13 (Continued on next page) 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2122 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 (In open court; jury not present) 2 THE COURT: Bring in the jury. 3 (Jury present) 4 THE COURT: Ladies and gentlemen, the first opening 5 statement will be given on behalf of the government by Mr. 6 Morvillo. 7 Mr. Morvillo. 8 MR. MORVILLO: Thank you, your Honor. 9 Good morning. May it please the Court, this is Sheikh 10 Omar Abdel Rahman. He is the spiritual leader of a violent 11 international terrorist organization called the Islamic Group. 12 He is serving a life sentence in a federal prison here in the 13 United States, a sentence imposed on him by a federal judge 14 following his conviction for, among other crimes, conspiracy to 15 commit murder, conspiracy to bomb and soliciting others to 16 commit crimes of violence. 17 The evidence in this case will show that Abdel Rahman 18 in fact preaches and solicits violence to accomplish his goals. 19 From prison in the United States Abdel Rahman has instructed 20 his followers to kill Americans. These are his words: 21 Dismember their nation, tear them apart, ruin their economy, 22 provoke their corporations, destroy their embassies, attack 23 their interests, sink their ships, and shoot down their planes. 24 Kill them on land, at sea, and in the air. Kill them wherever 25 you find them. Kill Americans everywhere. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2123 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 To make sure that Abdel Rahman was completely cut off 2 from his network of terrorist followers and to make sure that 3 Abdel Rahman's days of soliciting and inciting violence were 4 over forever. The United States Government imposed heavy 5 restrictions on his ability to communicate with the world 6 outside his prison cell. In effect, the United States 7 Government locked the door to his cell and threw away the key, 8 or so it thought. 9 Somehow, Abdel Rahman was able to communicate with the 10 leaders of his terrorist network. Somehow, Abdel Rahman was 11 able to pass his instructions, his orders, and his opinions to 12 the leaders of his terrorist network. Somehow, despite the 13 prison restrictions, Abdel Rahman was able to get a message to 14 the leaders of his terrorist group saying that he believed that 15 the time to kill had arrived. 16 That somehow is sitting right here in this courtroom. 17 Let me introduce you to them. 18 This is the defendant Ahmed Abdel Sattar. The 19 evidence will show that Sattar led a double life. By day he 20 was a postal worker. By night he was a terrorist living in a 21 shadowy world, a world where to avoid detection people speak in 22 code and don't use their real names when they speak on the 23 telephone. A world where Abdel Rahman is revered, a world 24 where violence is solicited and terrorist conspiracies are 25 hatched, a world where Sattar can proudly utter the words that SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2124 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 he wants everybody to hear. These are his words: "Kill Jews 2 wherever they are and wherever you find them. 3 The evidence in this case will show that Sattar was a 4 dedicated follower of Sheikh Abdel Rahman. When Abdel Rahman 5 was arrested in 1993, Sattar was right there by his side. 6 Following Abdel Rahman's conviction and life sentence, Sattar, 7 the evidence will show, became a point man in a scheme to 8 smuggle messages into and out of Abdel Rahman's prison cell, 9 messages to and from terrorists who still walk the streets and 10 who were still able to kill and kidnap. As a result, the 11 evidence will show that Sattar was a crucial link between Abdel 12 Rahman and his terrorist network. The evidence will show that 13 through contact with Abdel Rahman and other terrorists, Sattar 14 solicited murder and participated in a terrorist conspiracy to 15 kill and kidnap people. 16 This is the defendant Lynne Stewart. The evidence in 17 this case will show that she served as one of Abdel Rahman's 18 criminal defense attorneys during his 1995 criminal trial. As 19 a result, the evidence will show that Lynne Stewart knew that 20 Abdel Rahman had been convicted of crimes involving violence. 21 The evidence will also show that she knew that he preached and 22 solicited violence. The evidence will also show that she knew 23 that acts of terrorism had been threatened and carried out in 24 Abdel Rahman's name. She also knew that it was for these very 25 reasons that the United States Government had imposed these SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2125 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 prison restrictions in the first place. 2 But knowing all this, she used her status as a lawyer 3 to obtain access to Abdel Rahman under the prison restrictions 4 to help smuggle dangerous messages out of prison. The evidence 5 will show that by engaging in that calculated conduct Stewart 6 supported a terrorist conspiracy and along the way deliberately 7 lied to and defrauded the United States Government. 8 This is the defendant Mohammed Yousry. Mr. Yousry was 9 Abdel Rahman's translator. You will learn that Abdel Rahman 10 speaks primarily Arabic. He is also blind. As a result of 11 those two facts, and because of the prison restrictions, Yousry 12 was one of the only people in the world who could communicate 13 directly with Abdel Rahman. In addition, the evidence will 14 show that Mr. Yousry was an expert in Abdel Rahman and his 15 terrorist group the Islamic Group. He had written articles 16 about them and he had collected hundreds of articles about 17 Abdel Rahman and the Islamic Group. He knew all about them. 18 And though Mohammed Yousry knew all about the prison 19 restrictions, he is the one who read the forbidden messages 20 from other terrorists to Abdel Rahman, and he is the one who 21 took down Abdel Rahman's dictated responses to be passed back 22 to the terrorists overseas. Because of his crucial role, the 23 evidence will show that Yousry enabled Abdel Rahman to continue 24 to control his network of terrorist followers from prison; and 25 in so doing, he supported a terrorist conspiracy and defrauded SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2126 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 the United States Government. 2 These are the defendants. Despite the fact that these 3 defendants all knew that Abdel Rahman had been convicted of 4 crimes of violence, despite the fact that they knew that acts 5 of terrorism had been threatened and carried out in Abdel 6 Rahman's name and despite the fact that they knew all about the 7 prison restrictions, these defendants had an agenda, an agenda 8 that they shared with one another, an agenda that was simple. 9 Abdel Rahman's message was going to get out no matter what, and 10 so it did. 11 Using the pretext of attorney-client visits and 12 telephone calls, these defendants were able to break Abdel 13 Rahman's message of terror out of jail and deliver it to the 14 very people who never should have heard it, other terrorists 15 who still walk the streets and were still able to follow his 16 instructions. In the process these defendants broke the law. 17 In fact, they broke several laws. 18 First, these defendants, all three of them, broke the 19 law by participating in a conspiracy, a criminal agreement to 20 defraud the United States Government, by engaging in conduct 21 that violated the prison restrictions; second, Sattar, the 22 evidence will show, participated along with Abdel Rahman and 23 others in a conspiracy to kill and kidnap people in another 24 country, and Stewart and Yousry supported that conspiracy by 25 making the otherwise inaccessible Abdel Rahman available to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2127 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 participate as a member of that conspiracy to kill and kidnap 2 people in a foreign country. 3 Third, Sattar broke the law by soliciting others to 4 commit crimes of violence. Kill the Jews wherever they are and 5 wherever you find them is just a part of that crime. 6 Fourth, Stewart deliberately lied to the United States 7 Government when she twice falsely stated in writing under oath 8 that she would comply with the prison restrictions in place on 9 Abdel Rahman. 10 What are the facts? Well, there are a lot of them 11 here and I am going to take some time to walk you through them. 12 Before I turn to the specific evidence, let me just 13 say this. The purpose of an opening statement is not to tell 14 you what the evidence is. The witnesses will do that and the 15 exhibits will do that. Nor is the purpose of an opening 16 statement for me to try to imprint on you, on your minds, every 17 important fact. If we tried to do that, we would be here for 18 an awfully long time. An opening statement is sort of like 19 getting someone ready for a trip that they have never taken 20 before. You try to get them oriented to certain terms and 21 signs in the road so as they actually take the trip, they 22 understand where they are going and where they have been. In 23 that way my purpose here today is to give you a preview of what 24 the government expects the government will show in an effort to 25 provide you with landmarks and signposts to help you understand SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2128 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 the journey you are about to take. 2 I am going to mention a lot of names and dates and 3 words and places, and during the trial you will even hear more. 4 Please don't worry about that. What might seem quite strange 5 to you right now, I assure you, will seem quite familiar. 6 Let me tell you what I am going to do. This opening 7 statement is broken down into five parts. The good news is 8 that I've already finished the first part. Next I am going to 9 very briefly tell you what this case is about, a very quick 10 overview, the evidence in a nutshell. Then I am going to walk 11 you through in more details some of the relevant facts and 12 events. After that, I am going to spend a few minutes telling 13 you how we, the government, are going to prove these facts and 14 events to you. Finally, I am going to make a few final remarks 15 and conclude. 16 What is this case about? Quite simply, this is a case 17 about a jail break. Not your typical jail break where a 18 prisoner is freed to once again walk the streets. It is a 19 different type of jail break but one that the evidence will 20 show was equally as dangerous. 21 As I mentioned at the outset, Abdel Rahman was in jail 22 for conspiring to commit murder, for soliciting crimes of 23 violence, and for conspiring to bomb, among other crimes. He 24 was also the leader of a foreign terrorist organization called 25 the Islamic Group. The evidence will show that his role in the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2129 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 group was to make decisions, to give orders and approvals on 2 Islamic Group policy, and when and whether to carry out 3 terrorist operations. The evidence will show that he set the 4 agenda, that he gave the approvals, and that he was in control. 5 Thus, the evidence will show that it was his 6 directions and commands and his access to information that made 7 him dangerous, that made him a threat to innocent lives. The 8 evidence will show that his words and speeches were as 9 dangerous as weapons because of the effect that they had on his 10 followers. Stopping him from communicating with his group is 11 the only sure way to eliminate the threat that he posed. And 12 that is what the special prison restrictions were intended to 13 do. These defendants allowed Abdel Rahman to communicate with 14 his network of terrorist followers. To allow that to happen, 15 these defendants provided Abdel Rahman with a secret, 16 underground communications channel to get around the special 17 prison restrictions. The evidence will show that these 18 defendants were the ones who pulled off the jail break. They 19 were the ones who broke Abdel Rahman's message out of jail. 20 What were those messages? There were many. But all 21 the secret messages back and forth between Abdel Rahman and his 22 terrorist network culminate in the spring of 2000, when a 23 public announcement is made by Abdel Rahman, courtesy of these 24 defendants, saying that Abdel Rahman no longer supported a 25 cease fire by this terrorist organization, the cessation of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2130 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 terrorist violence between his organization and the Egyptian 2 government. In essence, these defendants helped Abdel Rahman 3 break out of jail to inspire his terrorist group to return to 4 terrorism. They allowed Abdel Rahman to tell his followers, 5 "Fire." That is what this case is about. And now I am going 6 to tell you how they did it. 7 To help me help you understand the facts of this case, 8 the chain of lengths that led us all here, I have prepared a 9 very general time line to get you oriented which, if the 10 technology is working right, should be displayed in the 11 monitors in front of you and on the screen behind you. 12 Fortunately, it is. 13 Let's start at the beginning. Abdel Rahman. Who is 14 Sheikh Abdel Rahman? He is sometimes referred to as the Blind 15 Sheikh. You know just about all you need to know about him 16 already. He is the leader of an international terrorist 17 organization serving a life sentence in a federal prison for 18 conspiring to commit and soliciting others to commit crimes of 19 violence. You see on the time line in October of 1995, Abdel 20 Rahman was convicted. He was sentenced in January of 1996. 21 Abdel Rahman was a man that the United States 22 Government believed was so dangerous it tried to cut him off 23 from the outside world. You will learn that Abdel Rahman is an 24 extremely radical Islamic cleric. You will learn that Abdel 25 Rahman issued religious orders, what are called fatwahs, urging SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2131 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 Jihad, which literally means struggle but, as used by Abdel 2 Rahman and his followers means holy war. 3 Given the facts that I have just laid out for you, it 4 should come as no surprise that the United States Government 5 was extremely concerned about Abdel Rahman's ability to 6 continue to solicit and incite violence from jail. 7 In an attempt to prevent Abdel Rahman from committing 8 crimes like those for which he was convicted, you will learn 9 that beginning in April of 1997, the United States Government 10 imposed what are known as special administrative measures, or 11 SAMs for short. These are the prison restrictions that I 12 mentioned to you earlier. These restrictions are the ones, the 13 evidence will show, that these defendants conspired to evade. 14 As a result, you will hear a lot about the special 15 administrative measures during the course of this trial. The 16 SAMs stated purpose is simple but critically important: To 17 protect persons against the risk of death or serious bodily 18 injury that could otherwise result if Abdel Rahman were free to 19 communicate, send or receive terrorist information. 20 Among other things, the SAMs allowed Abdel Rahman to 21 call only his wife -- those calls were monitored -- and his 22 attorneys. His nonlegal mail was screened by federal 23 authorities. He was prohibited from communicating with any 24 member of the media. And the attorneys were required to sign 25 what are called affirmation agreements before being allowed SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2132 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 access to him. The affirmations required: First, that the 2 attorneys and their staff would fully abide by the SAMs before 3 being allowed access to Abdel Rahman; second, that they would 4 only be accompanied by translators for the purpose of 5 communicating with inmate Abdel Rahman concerning legal 6 matters; and, third, that they agree not to use their meetings, 7 their correspondence, their phone calls, with Abdel Rahman to 8 pass messages between third parties, including the media and 9 Abdel Rahman. The evidence will show that Lynne Stewart signed 10 several of these affirmations and then proceeded to completely 11 disregard them. 12 The Islamic Group. Let's talk for a minute about the 13 Islamic Group. That group is important to this case. As I 14 have told you, Abdel Rahman was their spiritual leader, or 15 emir. The Islamic Group has long been a foreign terrorist 16 organization specifically designated by the United States 17 Government, a fact that was known by each of these defendants. 18 You will learn that by 1997 many of the Islamic 19 members and leaders were in jail in Egypt. The group was weak. 20 Many senior leaders of the organization had fled Egypt to avoid 21 arrest. You will learn that in mid 1997, the Islamic Group in 22 jail called for a unilateral cease fire, a tactical move by the 23 group to try to convince the government of Egypt to let them 24 out of jail. You will see it indicated here on the time line 25 in the summer of 1997. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2133 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 You will learn that in the summer of 1997, after it 2 was called for by the Islamic Group in jail, Abdel Rahman, even 3 though subject to special administrative measures at the time, 4 was able to get a message out of prison saying that he 5 supported the cease fire. You will also learn, however, that 6 Abdel Rahman had not abandoned his terrorist roots and become a 7 man of peace. That fact will become crystal clear as the 8 evidence in this case unfolds. You also learn that not all of 9 the group's leaders and members supported the cease fire. 10 Let's move to November of 1997. It is November 17, 11 1997. It is the morning. The scene is one of Egypt's most 12 popular tourist attractions, the magnificent archeological 13 ruins in the City of Luxor. Tour buses pull in and out of the 14 site. Tourists are milling about, snapping photographs and 15 soaking up the ancient history. In a heartbeat the serenity of 16 this moment is shattered by the sounds of gun fire and 17 screaming. Seemingly out of nowhere guns have appeared and 18 have begun indiscriminately shooting tourists. Tourists are 19 running everywhere trying to escape the carnage, some huddling 20 together near the entrance of the temple, and with nowhere to 21 run are massacred. A guard is shot in the head, a fleeing 22 woman is shot from behind, a man pleads with one of the 23 attackers, kill me and not my wife. 24 In the end, dozens of tourists are dead. It was a 25 brutal act of cold-blooded murder. The evidence will show that SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2134 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 these defendants were aware of the fact that this massacre was 2 conducted by members of the Islamic Group and, further, that 3 the terrorist who carried out this attack did so in an effort 4 to free Abdel Rahman from prison in the United States. In 5 other words, the evidence will show that these defendants knew 6 that Abdel Rahman inspired terrorism. 7 You will also learn that one of the most senior 8 leaders of the Islamic Group wrote a book in which he attempted 9 to justify the killing of tourists in Egypt, a book in which he 10 referred to the terrorists who carried out the Luxor massacre 11 as martyrs, a book that he dedicated to Sheikh Abdel Rahman. 12 His name is Rifa'i Ahmad Taha Musa, or Taha for short. He also 13 goes by the alias Abu Yasir. You will hear a lot about this 14 terrorist during the course of this trial. He was a friend of 15 Sattar's. In fact, you will learn that Sattar had Taha's book. 16 Let me give you what the evidence will show about 17 Taha. The evidence will show that he is a ruthless terrorist 18 leader. He is one of the most senior leaders of the Islamic 19 Group. He is on the Shura Council of the Islamic Group, which 20 is sort of like the terrorist organization's board of 21 directors. 22 The evidence will show that at the time of the events 23 in this case Taha was living in Afghanistan with Osama Bin 24 Laden and Osama Bin Laden's terrorist group, Al-Qaida. The 25 evidence will show that Taha believes that Americans should be SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2135 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 murdered. The evidence will show, in fact, that in February of 2 1998, an event depicted on the time line, that there was a 3 fatwah issued by Osama Bin Laden that called on "every Muslim 4 who believes in God and desires to be rewarded to follow God's 5 order to kill Americans and plunder their wealth wherever and 6 whenever they find it. 7 Taha also believes that Jewish people should be 8 killed. In fact, he coauthored the kill the Jews fatwah with 9 Sattar that I mentioned earlier. The evidence will show that 10 Taha was one of the moat militant leaders of the Islamic Group. 11 You will also learn that Taha absolutely opposed the cease 12 fire. He wanted the Islamic Group to continue in its terrorist 13 traditions, killing innocent people to accomplish its goals. 14 As long as a cease fire was in place and Abdel Rahman was 15 supporting it, Taha was in the minority. His murderous hands 16 were tied. 17 This is where the defendants come in. They were his 18 only link to Abdel Rahman. Taha needed access to Abdel Rahman 19 to convince him to end his support for the cease fire. And 20 these defendants, the evidence will show, did not disappoint. 21 You will learn that Sattar, Stewart, and Yousry repeatedly 22 shuttled secret messages between Taha and Abdel Rahman, 23 messages that led Abdel Rahman to end his support for the cease 24 fire, messages that handed Taha the momentum that he needed to 25 return the Islamic Group to the spilling of blood, messages SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2136 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 that never would have been passed between these two terrorists 2 without the criminal determination of Sattar, Stewart, and 3 Yousry, who the evidence will establish knew exactly what they 4 were doing. 5 Let's talk about the message pipeline created by these 6 defendants in early March of 1999, the last event on this time 7 line. The defendants Stewart, and Yousry met with Abdel Rahman 8 in a federal prison in Rochester, Minnesota. What happened 9 during this meeting? Well, the defendants, all three of them, 10 pass along a message from Islamic group members to Abdel Rahman 11 asking his permission to form an Islamic Group political party 12 in Egypt. How? Sattar got the messages from overseas to 13 Yousry. Yousry in prison, Yousry presented it back to Sattar, 14 Abdel Rahman responded. Yousry presented it back to Sattar and 15 Sattar disseminated it overseas, a clear violation of the law. 16 What was Abdel Rahman's view on an Islamic Group 17 political party? He flatly rejected the idea. In other words, 18 we will prove to you that Abdel Rahman from prison and while 19 subject to the SAMs, with the assistance of these defendants, 20 directed the Islamic Group to remain outside the law, to remain 21 a terrorist organization. During this same meeting Abdel 22 Rahman also responded to a request, one brought into the prison 23 by Yousry and Stewart from Taha asking Abdel Rahman to end the 24 cease fire. Abdel Rahman stated in his response to Taha: 25 "they, the Islamic Group prisoners in Egypt, are calling for SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2137 46MMSAT3 Opening - Mr. Morvillo 1 stopping the violence, and you, Taha, do not agree." 2 Exercising his leadership skills, Abdel Rahman 3 responded that Taha should give the leaders in prison some more 4 time, the ones who had proposed the cease fire. He said, maybe 5 the government of Egypt promised them something that we are not 6 aware of. But he concluded his message to Taha from prison 7 under SAMs by saying: "No new agreement or charter and nothing 8 should be done without my consultation or without my 9 knowledge." 10 There you have it. The evidence will show that Abdel 11 Rahman was giving orders to his terrorist followers from a 12 federal prison in the United States courtesy of these 13 defendants under SAMs, under prison restrictions designed to 14 prevent exactly that conduct. 15 Unfortunately, it did not stop there. In September of 16 1999, there is a new section of the time line that just flashed 17 up on your screens here. The press reported that four Islamic 18 Group members were killed during a shootout with Egyptian 19 authorities. This incident outraged Sattar and Taha. Sattar, 20 who had up to this point been a moderate supporter of the cease 21 fire, now wanted the cease fire to end. Sattar joined Taha. 22 They wanted revenge, they wanted action. And to achieve those 23 ends they needed something else that was extremely important to 24 them. They needed Abdel Rahman's support. 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2138 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 And, as the evidence will show, they succeeded. How? 2 Well, shortly after these articles appear, the ones about the 3 deaths of the four Islamic Group members, the defendant Yousry 4 and a different lawyer for Abdel Rahman, not Lynne Stewart, 5 visited Abdel Rahman in prison again in Rochester. During this 6 visit Yousry read Abdel Rahman news reports about the shooting, 7 the same one that had so enraged Sattar and Taha. Abdel Rahman 8 was angered by these reports as well. So angry, in fact, that 9 he dictated a statement to Yousry -- yet another clear-cut 10 violation of the law. 11 You will see that statement here in evidence. In that 12 statement, which Yousry passed onto Sattar, and Sattar passed 13 onto Taha, Abdel Rahman demanded that the Islamic Group review 14 the cease-fire and, further, and more importantly, stated that 15 they should consider themselves free from it. It no longer 16 applied. 17 That was precisely what Sattar and Taha wanted -- 18 Abdel Rahman's support. Sattar and Taha, you will learn, 19 discussed how to release a statement to the media so the entire 20 Islamic Group could hear that their leader had told the Islamic 21 Group that it was free to return to violence. They agreed that 22 it was safer to do so through the lawyers. But in stark 23 contrast to what Lynne Stewart would do in June of 2000, the 24 evidence will show that the lawyer who went on this visit 25 refused to authorize the release of Abdel Rahman's call to end SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2139 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 the cease-fire to the press. Why? The evidence will show that 2 the lawyer knew that releasing Abdel Rahman's statement to the 3 press would have constituted a clear and obvious violation of 4 the SAMs. 5 The evidence will show that that lawyer, like Stewart, 6 had agreed in writing that he would not do such things. 7 The evidence will show that releasing a statement like that 8 from Abdel Rahman was illegal. 9 Now, Sattar and Taha were in a bind. How could the 10 sheikh's message, his green light for terrorist operations, 11 best be communicated to terrorists? They needed a press 12 release. And the evidence will show that that was exactly what 13 Lynne Stewart was about to give them. The next prison visit to 14 Abdel Rahman was in February of 2000. Before this visit Taha 15 asked Sattar to have a message, something he called a poetry 16 line, conveyed to Abdel Rahman during the next visit. This 17 time, however, Yousry was accompanied by a third Abdel Rahman 18 attorney. And, as you will learn, Abdel Rahman didn't 19 completely trust this lawyer. And because this lawyer spoke 20 some Arabic, when he was out of the room Abdel Rahman told 21 Yousry that he was not comfortable writing in the presence of 22 this lawyer. Thus, Abdel Rahman did not dictate during this 23 visit any statements. 24 Following the visit, however, the evidence will show 25 that Sattar spoke to a senior leader of the Islamic Group SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2140 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 overseas and relayed what happened during the visit. Sattar 2 explained that there had been complications due to the fact 3 that the attorney who went on the visit would not allow Yousry 4 to read the letter to Abdel Rahman for fear that they would get 5 caught and lose everything. 6 Sattar told this Islamic Group leader that this lawyer 7 said that he would not allow messages to be passed because he 8 had signed an agreement saying that he wouldn't do such things. 9 The exact same agreement that, the evidence will show, Lynne 10 Stewart signed. 11 Sattar stated to this Islamic Group leader that he was 12 mad at this other lawyer. And he didn't intend to send him on 13 the next visit -- Sattar controlling the legal team. 14 Sattar stated that Abdel Rahman's other lawyers allowed 15 messages to be passed during prison visits. Specifically you 16 will learn that Sattar told that Islamic Group leader "they 17 tell you" -- referring to the lawyers -- "say what you want, do 18 what you want and write what you want. They even go out from 19 his place and hold press conferences and talk." 20 And so with the failed February visit behind them, 21 Sattar began making plans for another prison visit. His plans 22 included his sure thing -- Lynne Stewart. Sattar knew that 23 Stewart would get the necessary messages to Abdel Rahman and 24 that she would talk to the media. That visit happened in May 25 of 2000. On May 16, 2000, Lynne Stewart signed an affirmation SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2141 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 under penalty of perjury saying that she would not use her 2 visits and contact with Abdel Rahman to pass messages between 3 Abdel Rahman and third parties, including the media. She also 4 agreed to only use interpreters -- Yousry -- to communicate 5 with Abdel Rahman concerning legal matters. A mere three days 6 later, on May 19, 2000, Lynne Stewart broke her sworn agreement 7 with the government, and in the process she broke the law. 8 The evidence will show that Stewart and Yousry worked 9 together during this visit to pass messages to and from Abdel 10 Rahman, messages that the evidence will show had absolutely 11 nothing to do with legal matters. 12 Let me just pause here for a second. 13 There is absolutely no dispute that Lynne Stewart is a 14 lawyer and that she was Abdel Rahman's lawyer. Indeed, the 15 fact that Lynne Stewart is a lawyer is particularly relevant 16 though to this case. Why? Several reasons. 17 One, as a result of being Abdel Rahman's lawyer 18 Stewart knew all about Abdel Rahman's criminal history. She 19 sat through his criminal trial. She watched as he was 20 convicted and sentenced to life in prison. 21 Second, you will learn that Stewart actually used her 22 status as a lawyer to commit the crimes charged in the 23 indictment. She used her status as a lawyer to have access to 24 Abdel Rahman. She used her status as a lawyer as a cloak to 25 smuggle messages into and out of prison. In short, she used SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2142 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 her status as a lawyer to Abdel Rahman to allow him to incite 2 terrorism. And that, the evidence will show, is against the 3 law for anyone to do -- lawyer, doctor, priest, postal 4 worker -- anyone. Other than that Stewart's status as a lawyer 5 is irrelevant to this case. 6 Now, back to the May 2000 visit. 7 One of the first things that happens during this visit 8 is that Yousry told Abdel Rahman about a kidnapping that 9 happened in the Philippines by the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group. 10 Yousry told Abdel Rahman that the terrorists in the Philippines 11 had demanded his release from prison in exchange for their 12 hostages. And then the evidence will show that Yousry told 13 Stewart about the kidnapping and the demand for Abdel Rahman's 14 release. And in what can only amount to a snapshot of Lynne 15 Stewart's intent and her perspective, Stewart said, "good for 16 them." 17 The evidence will show that what Lynne Stewart was 18 saying was good for the Abu Sayyaf terrorists, good for them 19 for taking hostages, good for them for demanding the release of 20 Abdel Rahman -- good for them. 21 The prison visit continued. A short while later Abdel 22 Rahman asked Stewart, through Yousry, what the future held for 23 his case. Stewart referred to the Abu Sayyaf kidnapping. She 24 told Abdel Rahman that although what had happened in the 25 Philippines was unlikely to get him out of jail, it kept his SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2143 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 name alive as a hero of the jihad warriors and that that "was 2 very, very crucial." 3 In other words, the evidence will show that Lynne 4 Stewart's message to Abdel Rahman was terrorism carried out in 5 your name is good for your case. Later, during that day's 6 visit, Yousry read Abdel Rahman's statement, written by Taha, 7 that had appeared in an Arabic newspaper. While Yousry was 8 reading this article to Abdel Rahman he noticed that the guards 9 outside the prison meeting room had started to come close to 10 the window. Realizing that what he was doing was in violation 11 of the SAMs, Yousry asked Stewart to act like she was involved 12 in their conversation. What did Stewart do? She starts 13 acting. She began to pretend that she was conducting legal 14 business with Abdel Rahman. 15 This fact is made perfectly clear by the evidence that 16 you will see. How? Well, the evidence will show that at one 17 point Stewart actually commented that she could get an award in 18 acting for her performance in covering up the illicit 19 conversation that Sattar was having with Abdel Rahman right 20 there in the prison. 21 And then comes the most crucial part of the visit. 22 The evidence will show that Lynne Stewart pointed to a letter 23 from Sattar to Abdel Rahman and told Yousry to read it. Abdel 24 Rahman, she told him, needed to think about it overnight before 25 the next day's visit. As Yousry was reading this letter to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2144 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 Abdel Rahman, he suddenly stopped and told Stewart that the 2 guards were coming close again. And he needed her to talk. 3 Stewart then tapped on the letter with her pen and said, 4 referring to the guard, "If he finds out what this is, then we 5 are" -- and Yousry finished her sentence -- "in trouble." 6 Stewart responded, "Yeah, that's right." And then they 7 laughed. They laughed at how they were breaking the law. 8 Yousry continued reading Sattar's letter. Stewart stopped him 9 from time to time to continue the charade that they were 10 conducting legal business. Then Yousry read Abdel Rahman the 11 crucial part, the message in Sattar's letter from Taha in which 12 Taha asked Abdel Rahman to have a more forceful position to 13 approve a call for the cancellation of the cease-fire and to 14 make threats and to escalate the situation in Egypt. Sattar 15 through this letter implored Abdel Rahman "Please, your 16 eminence, say your opinion about this, dictate some points that 17 we can announce in a press conference with Lynne. If you don't 18 want to announce it" -- and there is an unintelligible -- 19 "please let Lynne know that." 20 Lynne of course is Lynne Stewart. 21 The next day, May 20, 2000, Stewart and Yousry return 22 to the prison for a second day of visits. During this day 23 while Stewart continued her acting performance, Abdel Rahman 24 dictated many letters to Yousry, all of which were violations 25 of the law. One of those letters was a response to Taha. What SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2145 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 was that response? Well, during the visit Abdel Rahman 2 dictated his opinion to Yousry and although Abdel Rahman's 3 words and thoughts on the subject were scattered throughout the 4 visit, Yousry and Stewart distilled it to a simple fact. What 5 was that fact? On June 13, 2000, in what amounted to yet 6 another clear violation of her agreement with the United States 7 not to pass messages between third parties and Abdel Rahman, 8 Stewart announced Abdel Rahman's position to the world. On 9 that day Stewart issued a statement to the press in which she 10 stated "Abdel Rahman is withdrawing his support for the 11 cease-fire that currently exists." In other words, Stewart 12 told the world that Abdel Rahman supported a return to 13 violence. 14 Now, in her announcement Stewart did not say expressly 15 "Abdel Rahman orders you to resume killing people." That is 16 not necessary. His words were clear. And with the 17 announcement Taha and Sattar obtain what they had long 18 wanted -- courtesy of Lynne Stewart and Mohammed Yousry -- 19 Abdel Rahman's public pronouncement that he no longer supported 20 the cease-fire. 21 Taha and Sattar now had the backing that they needed 22 to go out and resume terrorism. 23 The evidence will show that Lynne Stewart knew that 24 what she had done was wrong. How can we prove that? She said 25 as much. The next day, the day after she issues her press SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2146 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 release, Lynne Stewart calls Sattar at home. He was out. 2 Stewart spoke with Sattar's wife. During this call Sattar's 3 wife told Stewart that her press release was the top story in 4 the Middle East. Stewart responded by saying, "oh, brother." 5 Stewart told Sattar's wife that she didn't think that she would 6 be able to hide her conduct from the government and, as you 7 know, she was right. Sattar's wife asked Stewart if she was 8 going to get in trouble and Stewart replied "Probably. We will 9 deal with that too. Maybe it's the right thing. Then we can 10 fight the sheikh's fight on that ground too, you know." 11 In sum, Stewart knew that the release of Abdel 12 Rahman's statement was illegal. Why? Because it was a call 13 for violence by the leader of a terrorist organization. It was 14 also a major victory for Sattar and Taha. Sattar and Taha were 15 now emboldened by Abdel Rahman's decision to end his support 16 for the cease-fire. But they had a problem. Taha was in 17 Afghanistan. Sattar was in New York City. They needed someone 18 on the ground in Egypt to do their bidding. That someone is 19 named Atia. 20 He was, the evidence will show, the military leader of 21 the Islamic Group in Egypt. Beginning in September of 2000 22 there are a series of telephone calls between Taha, Sattar, 23 Atia, and people associated with Atia. These calls are 24 critical. They provide a clear insight into Sattar and Taha's 25 evil designs. You will learn that the participants in these SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2147 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 calls are highly suspicious of government monitoring of their 2 telephone. They talk in code. They talk vaguely, but the 3 message that is conveyed back and forth is clear as a bell. 4 You will learn that Taha, inspired by Abdel Rahman's support, 5 told Atia that the only barrier to performing an act of 6 terrorism was the Group's capability. No cease-fire -- 7 capability. 8 You will also learn that Atia told Taha and Sattar 9 that he had "big surprises" in store and that he "hoped that 10 our brothers will help us to surprise our enemy with a fatal 11 attack." 12 You will hear that Atia wanted Sattar and Taha to know 13 that he, Atia, and his people, had credentials. They were 14 involved, he told them, in numerous terrorist operations, 15 including the attack at Luxor that I described to you a few 16 moments ago. 17 You will learn that Sattar and Taha both knew that 18 Atia was the military leader of the Islamic Group in Egypt. 19 And they wanted to assess his capabilities to commit a 20 terrorist attack. No amount of careful talking can conceal 21 that fact. 22 What else happened in September 2000? Well, you will 23 learn that on September 21, 2000, on an Arabic television 24 station, a speech by Osama Bin Laden and Taha sitting together 25 under a banner entitled Convention To Support Honorable Omar SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2148 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 Abdel Rahman, during the speech the participants pledged to 2 free Abdel Rahman from prison. They talked about the necessity 3 of doing it. During the meeting Mohammed Abdel Rahman, a son 4 of Sheikh Abdel Rahman, was heard encouraging others to "avenge 5 your sheikh" and "go to the spilling of blood." 6 You will see a copy of that video here in court and 7 you will hear that Taha and Sattar discuss the speeches over 8 the phone. In fact, Taha, you will learn, called Sattar as 9 Sattar was watching Taha on television making the speech. You 10 will also hear that Mohammed Abdel Rahman, the sheikh's son, 11 called Sattar to talk about the speech. Still more evidence 12 that Abdel Rahman inspires terrorists and the spilling of 13 blood, even while in jail supposedly cut off from the outside 14 world. 15 And then Taha and Sattar took a giant leap towards 16 terrorist violence. Right in the middle of their ongoing 17 contact with Atia and just two weeks after the Bin Laden-Taha 18 video aired, Taha and Sattar agreed together to issue a lethal 19 fatwah -- and Islamic edict -- in Abdel Rahman's name. 20 The evidence will show at Sattar's direction Taha 21 drafted a fatwah and e-mailed it to Sattar. Sattar edited the 22 fatwah and then sent it to an associate in London who 23 distributed the fatwah to the press. I mentioned this fatwah 24 to you at the beginning when I introduced Sattar to you. This 25 is one of the clearest examples of Sattar's perspective and SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2149 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 intent. In this fatwah, which the evidence will show Sattar 2 and Taha issued under Abdel Rahman's name because they knew 3 that Abdel Rahman inspired terrorism, Sattar and Taha called on 4 Muslims everywhere to "fight the Jews and kill them wherever 5 they are and wherever they are found." The fatwah also 6 directed Muslims to attack Jews and, in a clear reference to 7 the United States, also urged attacks on those who support the 8 Jews. 9 The evidence will clearly demonstrate that Sattar and 10 Taha wanted this fatwah to be executed. They wanted Jewish 11 people and Americans to die. Yousry told Abdel Rahman about 12 the fatwah during an attorney telephone call and Abdel Rahman 13 endorsed it. Then Yousry told Stewart about the fatwah and 14 Abdel Rahman's reaction to it. Stewart told Yousry if the 15 Sheikh didn't issue it but he wanted to adopt it, then "she was 16 for it too." 17 During this call Yousry told Stewart that one of Abdel 18 Rahman's other lawyers was very worried about the fatwah. In 19 response Stewart says to Yousry "Does he really think that the 20 American government can completely put this man in an iron box 21 and cut him off from the whole world?" Stewart later told 22 Yousry during the same conversation that she had a different 23 position on this issue and that her position was that Abdel 24 Rahman "is going to get his message out no matter what." Her 25 words, no interpretation necessary. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2150 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 Now, despite her sworn agreement, despite the law, she 2 was going to get the sheikh's message of hate and terror out to 3 the world no matter what. The very day after the fatwah was 4 published Sattar read a newspaper article to Taha. That 5 article identified Atia as the leader of the Islamic Group 6 military wing in Egypt. 7 Taha commented that the writer of that article had 8 really good information. Three days later Taha called Sattar 9 and told Sattar that he should contact Atia and tell them about 10 the fatwah, the one demanding the murder of the Jews, and, 11 further, to tell them that they are to go by it. And what did 12 Sattar say? He agreed. In other words, unequivocal, explicit 13 evidence will demonstrate that Taha and Sattar agreed that 14 Sattar would instruct the person that they both knew to be the 15 military leader of the Islamic Group to kill people. And that 16 is exactly what Sattar did. Sattar passed on these deadly 17 instructions in early October 2000. 18 Now, October was a busy time for Sattar and Taha and 19 Atia. Phone calls were exchanged on a daily basis. And then 20 on October 19, 2000 Sattar got the news, Atia was in the 21 hospital. The evidence will show that is a code word for 22 prison. Or, he was told, perhaps something worse happened. As 23 it turns out, you will learn that Atia was dead. He had been 24 killed during a shootout with Egyptian authorities on October 25 18, 2000. Atia's death triggered numerous phone calls and SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2151 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 accusations against Sattar and Taha by other members of the 2 Islamic Group. Sattar and Taha were blamed for Atia's death, 3 blamed because they were not careful on the telephone; blamed 4 because it was believed that Sattar and Taha were pressuring 5 Atia to conduct a terrorist operation. 6 Taha and Sattar had a lengthy conversation about what 7 led to Atia's death. They discussed how such mistakes could be 8 avoided in the future. And they talked about Atia. They 9 referred to him as a martyr. 10 Is Atia's death the end? Nope. What else happened in 11 October 2000? Well, you know Taha and Bin Laden appeared on TV 12 together and urged jihad to free Abdel Rahman. Taha and Sattar 13 had written and published the fatwah in Abdel Rahman's name to 14 murder Jewish people and all the phone calls back and forth 15 between Sattar, Taha and Atia -- well, something else happened 16 in October 2000 that is important to this case. In mid-October 17 the press reported that on October 12, 2000, in the Middle 18 Eastern country of Yemen, an American Navy destroyer called the 19 USS COLE was bombed and sailors were killed and injured. 20 How did this affect Taha and Sattar? They saw these reports as 21 an opportunity, an opportunity to try to spring Abdel Rahman 22 from prison. 23 In a telephone call several days after the reports of 24 the bombing -- a call that occurred over someone else's cell 25 phone because of Sattar and Taha's fear of surveillance -- Taha SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2152 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 told Sattar that the bombing of the Cole "was not far from us." 2 And that he wanted to convey a threat to the United States 3 government that "the problems are related to the man that they 4 are holding -- Abdel Rahman. If his conditions are 5 straightened out, it will follow that other things will get 6 straightened out also." They were talking about Abdel Rahman. 7 And these facts take on particular import in the next prison 8 visit to Abdel Rahman, which was in July of 2001. 9 In May of 2001, after months of negotiations with the 10 government, Lynne Stewart signed a new affirmation in which she 11 agreed once again to abide by the SAMs, in which she agreed 12 once again not to pass messages between Abdel Rahman and third 13 parties, in which she agreed once again to use interpreters for 14 legal matters. This time she specifically stated in the 15 agreement "I understand that Abdel Rahman has been convicted of 16 terrorism offenses, including soliciting crimes of violence, 17 and that terrorist actions have been carried out by persons 18 using his name, including the killing of approximately 60 19 tourists in Luxor, Egypt in November of 1997 and the kidnapping 20 of tourists in the Philippines in the spring of 2000. I 21 understand that the United States is concerned that a violation 22 of the SAMs, including but not limited to dissemination of 23 messages on behalf of Abdel Rahman, can lead to violence to 24 persons or property here in the United States or overseas." 25 Then in July of 2001, the first prison visit to Abdel Rahman SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2153 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 since May of 2000, since Stewart released his statement to the 2 media, Stewart broke her sworn agreement again along with 3 Yousry. During this visit Yousry and Stewart decided to tell 4 Abdel Rahman about the Cole bombing and the call that Sattar 5 had received from Taha, even though Stewart and Yousry knew 6 that doing so was yet another violation of the prison 7 restrictions and was, as a result, illegal. 8 How are we going to prove to you that they knew that 9 what they were doing was a violation? Well, as Yousry relayed 10 the information to Abdel Rahman telling Abdel Rahman that the 11 Cole was bombed for him and about the phone call that Sattar 12 had received, Stewart once again donned her acting cap and 13 resumed her role as a cover to conceal the conversations from 14 the prison guards. In fact, you will see that this time 15 Stewart doesn't even bother to pretend that they are discussing 16 legal matters. She literally says, as she is holding a water 17 jug and shaking it "I am just doing covering noises." They 18 also passed, during this visit, messages to Abdel Rahman about 19 the cease-fire again, specifically a letter from Abdel Rahman's 20 son containing a request -- the son who called for the spilling 21 of blood in the Bin Laden-Taha video -- asking Abdel Rahman to 22 continue to oppose the cease-fire. 23 Well, I can go on but I think I have given you enough 24 for this morning. You know all about Abdel Rahman. You know 25 about Taha, the cease-fire, the Islamic Group. You know about SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2154 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 the prison restrictions, the SAMs, how the messages were passed 2 during the various visits. You know how these defendants 3 helped Abdel Rahman end his support for the cease-fire. You 4 know about the calls between Taha and Sattar and Atia, the Bin 5 Laden video pledging to release Abdel Rahman. You know about 6 the fatwah that Taha and Sattar wrote in Abdel Rahman's name. 7 And you know how Sattar and Taha discussed using the Cole 8 bombing to free Abdel Rahman. 9 What you don't know is how we are going to prove all 10 these facts and events to you. Well, you have actually 11 probably figured it out by now. You will hear recordings of 12 the defendants committing these crimes. The evidence in this 13 case consists largely of the defendants' own secretly recorded 14 words -- words that you are going to see and hear in the form 15 of transcripts right here in this courtroom. Because what 16 Ahmed Abdel Sattar did not know, although he was suspicious, 17 was that since November of 1998, and sporadically before that, 18 the FBI with court authorization was listening to and recording 19 his telephone calls, monitoring his Internet usage and his 20 e-mail account and his fax machine. 21 And what the surveillance reveals is an astonishing 22 glimpse inside a terrorist network, a network in which Sattar 23 was a critical member playing a crucial role and, likewise, 24 what Lynne Stewart and Mohammed Yousry did not know after 25 monitoring Sattar's communications the FBI obtained court SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2155 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 authorization to record their prison visits and telephone calls 2 with Abdel Rahman. In other words, what the defendants didn't 3 know is that they were caught -- caught in the act, caught in 4 the act of smuggling messages, caught in the act of trampling 5 the prison restrictions, caught in the act of effectively 6 breaking Abdel Rahman out of jail. 7 We will prove to you that the defendants allowed Abdel 8 Rahman to continue to lead his terrorist network from prison 9 and to participate in a conspiracy to kill and kidnap people. 10 As a result of this surveillance, you will learn that Sattar 11 used his telephone as a communications hub for the leaders of 12 the Islamic Group to keep in touch. He used his phone to patch 13 leaders of the group together overseas so they could discuss 14 Islamic Group policy, the cease-fire, newspaper articles in 15 which they were quoted, Abdel Rahman, terrorism. 16 You will hear Sattar read the fatwah that he issued, 17 the one urging the killing of Jews, over the phone. You will 18 hear his calls with Atia, the leader of the Islamic Group's 19 military in Egypt, and Atia's associates. You will hear Sattar 20 and others discuss the fact that they believed that Sattar's 21 phone is wiretapped and that they need to be careful when they 22 are talking. Through these calls you will learn that Taha is 23 in Afghanistan with Osama Bin Laden and that he is militant, 24 that he opposes the cease-fire, that he wants a terrorist 25 operation to occur. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2156 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 You will also learn that Sattar is well versed in the 2 prison restrictions. He knows all about them -- what you can 3 do and what you can't do. He talks about them over the phone. 4 In short, you will hear a lot of evidence intercepted over 5 Sattar's telephone. 6 You will also hear and see video and audio of some of 7 the prison visits. Specifically you will see and hear the May 8 2000 visit. You will see and hear Stewart approve of the Abu 9 Sayyaf kidnapping in Abdel Rahman's name. You will see and 10 hear Stewart acting to distract the guards while Yousry reads 11 forbidden letters to Abdel Rahman. You will see and hear 12 Yousry ask Stewart to act like she is participating in their 13 conversations to cover up the illicit conversations that they 14 are having. You will see and hear Stewart during the July 2001 15 prison visit shaking a water jug and stating that she is making 16 covering noises as she is doing it. You will see and hear 17 Yousry whispering to Abdel Rahman about the cease-fire. 18 You will also see a lot of documents recovered during 19 search warrants executed at various places. In fact, among 20 other things, you will learn that Sattar possessed a tape 21 recording of Abdel Rahman issuing the fatwah that I quoted to 22 you at the very beginning of my opening statement, the one 23 about sinking ships, shooting down planes, and killing 24 Americans. 25 In sum, you will hear and see articles, messages, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2157 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 notes, e-mails, faxes, transcripts and recordings all 2 establishing that these defendants knew that Abdel Rahman was 3 the leader of a violent international terrorist organization 4 and that he was saying to his terrorist organization he 5 believed they should end the cease-fire. In other words, that 6 he was saying to his terrorist organization "Fire." 7 Now, you may be wondering why did the government let 8 Lynne Stewart and Yousry back in in July 2001 after they broke 9 the law by violating the prison restrictions in releasing Abdel 10 Rahman's withdrawal support for the cease-fire. The answer is 11 that the wiretaps on Sattar's phone and the bugs in the prison 12 meeting rooms were done in connection with an intelligence 13 investigation, not a criminal investigation. An intelligence 14 investigation is just that, an investigation to gather 15 intelligence for national security purposes. 16 You will learn that as a result the government did not 17 want to end the intelligence investigation until it was no 18 longer getting useful intelligence about the activities of 19 Sattar and the Islamic Group. As a result, the criminal 20 investigation and any consideration of charges were put on hold 21 due to a fear that the criminal investigation could possibly 22 blow the intelligence investigation. 23 Now, I have really just thrown a lot of facts at 24 you -- facts that I submit you will find are clearly 25 established by the evidence that you will see and hear. And SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2158 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 what do these facts add up to? I submit that they will show 2 that Sattar was a communications center for terrorists, 3 connecting them with Abdel Rahman and each other. As a result 4 of that role, the evidence will prove that Sattar became 5 aligned with Taha in the militant side of the Islamic Group -- 6 the militant, anti-American, anti-Jewish terrorist leader who 7 wanted the cease-fire to end and the killing to resume. The 8 evidence will show that Sattar and Taha enlisted Abdel Rahman's 9 support to resume terrorism, and together Taha, Abdel Rahman 10 and Sattar were members of a criminal agreement to kill and 11 kidnap people in a foreign country. 12 The evidence will also show that Stewart and Yousry 13 supported the Taha-Sattar-Abdel Rahman agreement to kill and 14 kidnap. They supported it by making Abdel Rahman available to 15 participate in that agreement, the otherwise inaccessible Abdel 16 Rahman. 17 This is going to be a long trial and chances are there 18 are many times when it's not going to be particularly exciting. 19 There will be a lot of reading, and when I say "a lot," I mean 20 a lot. Because, as you know, the principal witnesses to these 21 defendants' crimes are audio tapes and videotapes. Because 22 most of the conversations are in Arabic and because a lot of 23 the prison visits are also in Arabic, we will need to read 24 transcripts of these recordings to you. You will see a lot of 25 transcripts. That is simply the only reasonable way that we SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2159 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 can present this evidence to you. The crimes were committed to 2 a large extent in a different language. 3 Let me tell you what you are not going to see. You 4 are not going to hear from one witness who will know everything 5 about this case. As you know, much of the evidence consists of 6 video and audio recordings, objective proof of the defendants 7 caught in the acts of committing these crimes. Some of these 8 calls are coded and they are cryptic. But the defendants knew 9 that they had to be sneaky because they were concerned about 10 monitoring. But taken altogether, we expect the meanings of 11 these recordings to be crystal clear to you. 12 Keep in mind that as you hear the evidence one witness 13 who testifies about one aspect of the case may know absolutely 14 nothing about another aspect of the case. The evidence of the 15 crimes charged in this case was gathered over a period of many 16 years, from many places, and it involves many individuals. 17 That is why it's important that you look at the totality of the 18 evidence and try, as it's coming in, to place it in the 19 framework that I have tried to give you here this morning. And 20 with respect to a particular piece of evidence or many pieces 21 of evidence you can't figure out how it fits in, don't worry 22 about it. By the end of the case when you begin your 23 deliberations it will all come together -- the calls, the 24 documents, the witnesses -- all come together to give you a 25 clear picture of what these defendants did. And when all those SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2160 46MSSAT4 Morvillo - opening 1 pieces of evidence are stitched together they will be just as 2 clear as if one witness had sat in that witness chair right 3 there and told you the whole story from start to finish. 4 Additionally, at the end of the case after all the 5 evidence is in, my colleagues will have a chance to stand up 6 here and explain to you and argue to you what the evidence 7 shows -- tell you how it all fits together. 8 Keep in mind that the evidence is what the witnesses 9 and the exhibits tell you. The evidence is not what comes out 10 of the lawyers' mouths during questioning of witnesses or 11 arguments. Don't be distracted by that. Focus on the 12 evidence, the overwhelming evidence of the defendants' guilt. 13 I also ask you to listen carefully to Judge Koeltl's 14 instructions on the law. But, most of all, I ask you to use 15 your common sense, as Judge Koeltl did earlier. There is no 16 sign on the door to the jury room that says check your common 17 sense with the marshals. 18 I submit to you that if you focus on the facts and the 19 law, and if you use your common sense in considering the 20 evidence, you will return the only verdict in this case that is 21 consistent with the law and the evidence. You will find beyond 22 a reasonable doubt that these defendants are guilty of the 23 crimes with which they are charged. 24 Thank you for your attention. 25 (Continued on next page) SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2161 46MMSAT5 1 THE COURT: Ladies and gentlemen, it is about 12:50, 2 so it is about time for us to break for lunch. I am told that 3 your lunch should be here shortly, so we will break for lunch 4 until 2:00. 5 Please, please remember my continuing instructions, 6 very important, don't talk about this case at all or anything 7 to do with it. Remember always to keep an open mind until you 8 have heard all of the evidence, I've instructed you on the law 9 and you've gone to the jury room to begin your deliberations. 10 Have a good lunch and I look forward to seeing you 11 after lunch. 12 (Jury not present) 13 THE COURT: There are logistics matters that I wanted 14 to talk to the lawyers about for a moment, if I could. 15 (At the side bar) 16 THE COURT: I could have announced this at the bench. 17 You are welcome to have your clients here and I will listen to 18 thoughts about the way I should convey matters such as this to 19 you. The juror who is seated in chair No. 15, No. 387, has a 20 wedding and expects to leave at 3:00 from Newark on July 1. I 21 have not checked the calendar to see what day. 22 MS. BAKER: That's a Thursday. 23 THE COURT: I know I was going to take a long July 4 24 weekend, in any event. 25 The second thing is that Mr. Grate informed me that SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2162 46MMSAT5 1 one juror had to take a very expensive cab to get to the van 2 this morning because a train wasn't available that early in the 3 morning to get to the van. So I authorized a cab fare and 4 asked Mr. Grate to see if the marshals can't work out a better 5 way. 6 (Luncheon recess) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2163 46MMSAT5 1 AFTERNOON SESSION 2 2:15 p.m. 3 (In open court; jury not present) 4 THE COURT: Let's bring in the jury, please. 5 (Jury present) 6 THE COURT: Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. The 7 opening statement on behalf of Ms. Stewart will be given by 8 Mr. Tigar. 9 Mr. Tigar. 10 MR. TIGAR: Thank you very much, your Honor. I do 11 have something to say. Members of the jury, for 40 years in 12 this town Lynne Stewart right here has been building for 13 justice and not for terror. And when the end of the case comes 14 and I stand before you, I submit that the evidence will show 15 that anybody who says different, claims different, argues 16 different, either sees these things very differently, is 17 relying on faulty intelligence or is acting from an outright 18 desire to mislead you. 19 Before I talk about what I think will be the evidence 20 in the case as a whole, I would like your indulgence to talk 21 about three things that may have some particular impact on you 22 as the evidence is presented. 23 The first of these is a report that a group of 24 terrorists in the Philippines had kidnapped some hostages. The 25 group was called Abu Sayyaf and they did it claiming that they SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2164 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 were doing it for Sheikh Abdel Rahman, who had nothing to do 2 with it. The evidence will not be that he had anything to do 3 with it. There won't be any evidence or any claim that Lynne 4 Stewart had anything to do with it, but she did report it to 5 her client because it was something being done in his name and 6 there will be a tape recording or a recording in evidence of 7 that conversation. And that that tape recording she did not 8 approve in any way of what had happened. 9 The recording, which is made by imperfect technology, 10 shows that she said that it was a good thing it had been 11 reported, and then Mr. Yousry goes on to tell about the 12 kidnapping. And Lynne Stewart's voice is heard with crystal 13 clarity: That's so sad, that's so sad. 14 When I say her voice, it brings up something that's a 15 kind of irony. For 40 years, more than 25 of them as a lawyer, 16 Lynne Stewart has not been bashful about speaking for herself. 17 But now she has to rely on Ms. Shellow-Lavine and myself to 18 speak for her. We are going to do something about that. When 19 it is our turn she is going to get up from that chair, she is 20 going to walk over here, place her hand on the book and tell 21 you what happened from her perspective. 22 Now, the second thing I want to talk about by way of 23 introduction is this idea that maybe coming out here in the 24 evidence that the government wanted to put Sheikh Abdel Rahman 25 in jail and throw away the key, utterly silence his voice. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2165 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 Members of the jury, that is nonsense, it didn't happen, that 2 won't be the evidence. 3 What will the evidence be? In 1997, shortly after the 4 special administrative measures had been imposed, the SAMs, 5 Sheikh Abdel Rahman met in prison with his lawyer, Ramsey 6 Clark, who was one of the lawyers. Ramsey Clark, that's a name 7 you might know. He was Attorney General of the United States 8 during the administration of Lyndon Johnson, President Johnson. 9 He was a strong law and order attorney general and he is now in 10 private practice. 11 Ramsey Clark met with Sheikh Rahman, his client, and 12 Sheikh Rahman said, I support nonviolence in Egypt. There will 13 be a lot of evidence in here about Egyptian politics. Thank 14 heavens we don't have to learn about Egyptian politics, but 15 there will be some. I support nonviolence in Egypt. Ramsey 16 Clark then, on the 21st of August 1997, caused that statement 17 to appear in the Cairo Times by way of helping to cool a 18 situation, a very volatile political situation in Egypt. 19 Now, around that time, this is pretty early in the 20 time that Sheikh Abdel Rahman is in prison. He is in prison in 21 Missouri, Springfield, prison hospital, and he is complaining 22 very loudly about his treatment. He is blind, he is diabetic 23 and he has a heart condition. A lot of his complaints may not 24 have any basis because being blind he can't see, obviously, and 25 he can't see whether the guards are coming in and out of his SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2166 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 prison cell and he gets very upset when he feels people near 2 him. And he and the guards have had some difficulty, including 3 some allegations that they roughed him up. 4 Well, that dispute then leads Mr. Clark to make a very 5 interesting proposal to the senior federal official, which he 6 does in the fall of 1997. And what is it? It is why don't we 7 take -- send him to Egypt and he can serve his time in the 8 Egyptian prison and he won't be a lightning rod for what's 9 going on here in the United States. 10 Well, the Federal Government at that point does not 11 respond to that proposal. But on the 5th of November 1997 12 Kathleen Hawke, the director of the Federal Bureau of prisons, 13 addresses a memorandum to the Deputy Attorney General of the 14 United States and suggests that the United States Government 15 publicize in the media Sheikh Abdel Rahman's prison situation. 16 So the idea that there were going to be things set out about 17 Sheikh Abdel Rahman was a part of a dialogue that was being had 18 with the government of the United States. 19 Now, what's the next thing that happened? You heard 20 about Luxor. There was -- let me get the date because I don't 21 want to make a mistake here. On the 17th of November 1997, a 22 group of people -- let's call them by their name, terrorists -- 23 attacked tourists in Luxor, Egypt and about 60 people were 24 killed. It was horrible. Everything you will hear about, 25 horrible. It is not even alleged that Lynne Stewart had SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2167 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 anything to do with it. It is not alleged that Sheikh Abdel 2 Rahman had anything to do with it. These people did say some 3 of them, we are doing it to free the Sheikh, but he was already 4 on record saying, don't do things like that. 5 In fact, after the Luxor attack the official newspaper 6 of the Islamic Group denounced it and said that it had been 7 wrong and criminal and was going to lead to more trouble. Now, 8 there were some renegades in the Islamic Group and one of them 9 is this fellow Taha, that is true, who would not only agree 10 with the general position that they shouldn't do violence, but 11 what did he do? He abandoned Egypt, trying to improve 12 conditions there. And goes off to Sudan and Afghanistan to 13 join Osama Bin Laden who doesn't have anything interesting or 14 valuable to say about Egypt. 15 The third item, members of the jury, from May of 2000 16 to May of 2001, Lynne Stewart was barred from any contact with 17 Sheikh Abdel Rahman. She wasn't permitted to visit him, she 18 wasn't permitted to talk to him on the phone, and she didn't 19 visit him or talk to him on the phone because she was having a 20 dispute with the government. And believe me, before the week 21 is out we will hear about that from evidence, I predict. She 22 was having a dispute. 23 So the fact that during that time somebody in the 24 Sheikh's name issued some statement, a statement, not some 25 statement, a horrible violent statement calling for violence SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2168 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 has nothing to do with Lynne Stewart. She wasn't any part of 2 it. She didn't approve of it. Indeed, it was not something 3 that she would have done. 4 Those are three introductory points. If you will 5 excuse the rudeness, let me start where I would ordinarily 6 start. May it please the Court, Mr. Sattar, Mr. Yousry, Lynne 7 Stewart, members of the jury, can you see my hand? No, you 8 can't see my hand, not until I have turned it over and showed 9 you both sides can you say that you have seen my hand. And 10 that's not just some lawyer's rhetorical device. It says 11 something about a case. You have just heard an opening 12 statement from a prosecutor. It is what they believe the 13 evidence will show. 14 In fact, I heard somebody say to you about eight times 15 you know, you know, you know, you know, you know in that 16 opening statement. Well, I intend no rudeness when I say 17 members of the jury that you don't know. You don't know. You 18 don't know after I told you. You don't know after Mr. Ruhnke 19 talks or Mr. Paul. You don't know until you have heard 20 evidence. They have the burden of proof here beyond a 21 reasonable doubt and nobody knows anything until they start to 22 try to meet it. 23 So this is Lynne Stewart and Jill Shellow-Lavine's and 24 my promise to you of what we confidently believe and expect 25 that the evidence will show. It is not like a politician's SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2169 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 promise and you hear it and then you vote and then you see if 2 they keep it or not. You won't vote until you hear the 3 evidence and you will see who keeps their promise and who does 4 not before you write the ending of this story with your 5 verdict. 6 Lynne Stewart is not guilty, not guilty. I want first 7 to talk about Lynne Stewart, give you a picture of this person 8 that's sitting here. Before I do that, I want to talk about 9 these charges. Charges are not facts. They are a list of what 10 prosecutors hope to prove beyond a reasonable doubt. Members 11 of the jury, Lynne Stewart did not conspire to defraud the 12 United States. She did not join any conspiracy to assist 13 terrorists. She did not criminally assist any terrorists. She 14 was the courageous and honorable lawyer as provided under our 15 Constitution for an accused terrorist. That's the simple heart 16 of this case. 17 By the time the case is over the evidence will be 18 clear enough that even people who don't like the idea of 19 lawyers for accused people will get it. Lynne Stewart did not 20 make Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman available to a conspiracy to kill 21 or kidnap people. She did not make statements designed to 22 start senseless violence. In fact, as the evidence will show, 23 she and the other lawyers, including a former attorney general 24 of the United States, worked very hard, and not always under 25 the best of conditions, to keep Sheikh Abdel Rahman's name and SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2170 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 reputation out of any such thing because they were his lawyers 2 and because it was in their interests to do so, even if other 3 people disagreed. 4 Lynne Stewart did not send out, distribute or 5 communicate any messages that called on arms or that called on 6 people to take violent acts. She didn't lie. She did her 7 lawful job as a lawyer. And, yes, as the evidence will show, 8 members of the jury, Lynne Stewart was trying to make America a 9 safer and more just place. She is a lawyer, under difficult 10 circumstances and in times when people question whether people 11 should have lawyers. 12 Let's cull out some of the things that lawyers do. 13 They represent people. They challenge the government. They 14 stand up for their client. But they do so sometimes under 15 difficult conditions. In this opening, as in every other 16 point, I am going to speak to you throughout this case for one 17 person and one person only, Lynne Stewart. There is a lot of 18 evidence in this case that will turn out not to involve Lynne 19 Stewart at all that is not offered by the government about 20 Lynne Stewart. 21 The 1998 so-called fatwah will not be offered as to 22 Lynne Stewart. It will be offered as to somebody else. I 23 predict the judge will give limiting instructions to ask you -- 24 to instruct you how to consider that evidence. The case is 25 about three defendants, one, two, three, each entitled to your SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2171 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 separate consideration and, yes, there will be these facts and 2 stories from all over the place, some mural on the wall in a 3 public building of doing this, that and the other thing and 4 over in the corner of the mural there is a hard-working person 5 doing her job and that is Lynne Stewart. Sometimes I may 6 cross-examine a witness simply to show that the evidence that 7 witness offered doesn't have anything to do with Lynne Stewart. 8 There will be days and hours in which evidence will come in 9 that is not being offered as to her. 10 Lynne Stewart was the lead trial lawyer for Sheikh 11 Abdel Rahman. A federal judge in this building appointed her, 12 and former Attorney General of the United States, as counsel. 13 A jury sitting in a room just like this one convicted Sheikh 14 Abdel Rahman of serious crimes, including trying to blow up 15 buildings and advocating blowing up buildings. He was put in 16 prison under a life sentence. These are facts. We are not 17 here to argue about them. We don't challenge them. If anyone 18 wants to provide details about that, so be it. You will hear 19 evidence from that trial. We may present some ourselves to 20 present a full picture. 21 Why would we do that since we don't contest it? 22 First, to present the rest of the story, a full picture, but, 23 second, members of the jury, when you hear about that trial, 24 when you hear about those cross-examinations of government 25 witnesses, when you hear about the challenge of back and forth SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2172 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 of evidence and who lied and who didn't, you will see, we 2 submit, the evidence of a hard-working, honorable lawyer at 3 work, active, articulate, and a constitutionally necessary part 4 of our system. 5 Lynne Stewart believes and throughout her career has 6 believed that if the government wants to put anybody in jail 7 that they better give them a fair trial. She believes that if 8 the government can take anybody they wanted to and just put 9 them in jail and treat them any way they wanted that this 10 country would be a very dangerous place indeed. She believes 11 it is the duty of lawyers to stand up for fair and decent and 12 just and right treatment for her clients no matter how hated 13 they may be and no matter what they have done. 14 She believes that America is made stronger when the 15 world sees that it treats even the most despised people fairly. 16 In every courtroom where Lynne Stewart has ever worked 17 throughout her life there is a judge and there are prosecutors 18 and there are jurors and there are defense counsel. It is not 19 easy sometimes to have any of those jobs because a lot of 20 people tend to mix up the lawyer's duty with the client's 21 alleged behavior. 22 So members of the jury, I want, please, to invite you 23 on a journey to see what was involved in this case in the daily 24 life of a lawyer, what she did, how she did it, and why she did 25 it, and we don't shrink from a discussion of any of it. This SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2173 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 will not be anything like the television lawyer shows, and I 2 don't think it is going to be anything like the lawyer jokes 3 that everybody likes either. This is reality. On trials you 4 see, somebody has to go first. In this case, as in every case 5 where the government is claiming somebody did something wrong, 6 they go first, the prosecutors. Maybe because they have the 7 burden of trying to prove it beyond a reasonable doubt. 8 So when it is our turn we will present evidence and 9 I've told you we will, and we will, to raise those reasonable 10 doubts. But even before it is our turn, we will be 11 cross-examining the witnesses that are presented there to try 12 to bring out some of those reasonable doubts; sometimes just to 13 offer more perspective, sometimes more details and sometimes, 14 though, we will be cross-examining to show that a government 15 witness is biased or prejudiced or even being untruth to you or 16 relying on, as I have said before, faulty intelligence, 17 incomplete information. 18 So in the opening I want to start, let's talk about 19 Lynne Stewart a little bit, then about some of these factual 20 details along the road here. Lynne Stewart is a compassionate, 21 skillful, and brave lawyer. It was 1994. She gets a phone 22 call from the former Attorney General of the United States, 23 Ramsey Clark, who says, will you be lead defense counsel with 24 the trial of Sheikh Abdel Rahman? Lynne Stewart knew a few 25 things about the job that she was being asked to do in a case SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2174 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 of that kind. 2 First, it was a hard case and it would be a long 3 struggle. That was a challenge. But in her law practice, 4 there had been many cases, people that the government had 5 targeted. She was already a known figure in New York, well 6 known for her legal skills. Second, she knew from the 7 beginning, from 1994, before the trial started, she would be 8 doing the case under a microscope. She knew that the media 9 attention would be constant and intrusive, that reporters might 10 write things that were slanted or incomplete or even false, and 11 she accepted that risk because she dealt with high-profile 12 cases before. 13 But also she knew that this would be a high-stakes 14 case for the prosecutors and the defense, all eyes would be on 15 her, including the prosecutors. She knew this was not a big 16 fee case. Eventually, she would be appointed as counsel under 17 the Criminal Justice Act. And she also had to think about the 18 effect of the case on her family and on her career. In 1994, 19 as for all the years before that that she had been in practice, 20 her law office, her modest law office in lower Manhattan, was a 21 place where all sorts of people with troubles would come for 22 help. It was and remains to this day kind of a community law 23 office. When people bring their troubles to Lynne Stewart, it 24 is her job to try to find a way to resolve them; if not, by 25 negotiation, then by trial. So Lynne Stewart is a SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2175 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 compassionate and brave lawyer. 2 I'll say something else about the evidence. Lynne 3 Stewart is in law enforcement. Really? Yes. Lynne Stewart, 4 the lawyer, enforces what she believes to be the most important 5 laws in our country, the Constitution and its bill of rights. 6 Lynne Stewart, members of the jury, is a New Yorker. That will 7 be obvious, as obvious as it has been to the judges and jurors 8 and clients in the courtrooms where she spends her time. She 9 has so many years of experience dealing with prosecutors and 10 other lawyers, talking to juries, drawn from all parts of this 11 diverse community. She is brash, opinionated and, aside from 12 her law practice, deeply involved in the political and social 13 issues of her community. 14 She is not, never has been a big firm, rich lawyer. 15 She went to law school after she had been a public school 16 librarian, grew up in Queens. She and her husband were raising 17 three kids at home and she went to law school while doing that. 18 Now, her legal decision making -- this is what's important 19 about this -- is shaped by her practical knowledge of the way 20 the world works. Lynne Stewart is the prosecutor's adversary, 21 their opponent, the thorn in the government's side. Like all 22 good lawyers, she is the client's champion. People come to her 23 when prosecutors have made allegations, mainly in her practice. 24 She represents poor people and people of color, and often in 25 her cases she is appointed by the Court as in the case of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2176 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 Sheikh Abdel Rahman. 2 To be an adversary, Lynne Stewart, when she has heard 3 the prosecutor has made an allegation, says, can you prove 4 that. I doubt that. Can you prove that beyond a reasonable 5 doubt with lawful evidence? At the same time, she is a 6 realist. She does try to settle cases and settle issues and 7 you are going to hear testimony about her trying to do that in 8 hard-boiled negotiations with the government. But if there is 9 no settlement, yes, she will go to trial because she knows in 10 her experience that the police and the prosecutors may charge 11 innocent people with crime, and that person needs a champion 12 and got a negotiator. 13 Just as prosecutors use all their tools and stratagems 14 and devices to put people in prison, she takes seriously her 15 oath as a lawyer, her oath as a lawyer, provided for by the law 16 where she stood up and said she promised to represent her 17 clients, in the words of the law, with warm zeal. She does not 18 walk away from her obligations, even when the going gets tough. 19 Members of the jury, to be an advocate for somebody 20 means you have to know something about them. You have to care 21 who they are, understand who they are, to try to bridge the gap 22 between the client and whoever is deciding. And to be Sheikh 23 Abdel Rahman's advocate she studied her client's background and 24 values. She studied the politics and history of Egypt. She 25 studied Islamic politics and the various Islamic movements. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2177 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 She spent time, hours and days and weeks understanding her 2 client. 3 And here is a theme, members of the jury, that cuts 4 through this case: Lynne Stewart exercises independent 5 judgment. 6 Of course, Lynne Stewart and the other lawyers learned 7 about, researched all that was going on in the world to try to 8 understand it. They never accepted the government's version. 9 They never accepted prepackaged intelligence out of so-called 10 intelligence out of government agencies. No, indeed. But, 11 look, Lynne Stewart knows, in a law practice where you 12 represent people charged with crimes, some of your clients are 13 criminals. It happens. Maybe some of them associate with 14 criminals. 15 And no matter who a client is or what they are told to 16 do, some of them don't follow their lawyer's advice. Just like 17 a doctor's patient continues their unhealthy habits even though 18 the doctor implores them. People don't follow their lawyer's 19 advice. In this evidence it is going to be important to make a 20 distinction between what the lawyer is saying the law is about 21 and some things that the client may think or believe or want 22 because there can be a gap there and that imposes a special 23 responsibility on lawyers. Lynne Stewart is not there to do 24 whatever the client wants. 25 She earned her license to practice law, she earned it SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2178 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 the hard way, by commuting every day across to Newark to go to 2 law school for three years. It is not for sale, not to 3 anybody, not to any client. In this case there will be plenty 4 of evidence, members of the jury, of Lynne Stewart saying no, 5 we can't that, don't do that, when that was the right thing to 6 say. Another part of independent judgment is that sometimes 7 lawyers disagree, even ones on the same side. If any of those 8 disagreements come up, Lynne Stewart will be happy to discuss 9 them with you. 10 But there is another part of independent judgment, 11 members of the jury. I mentioned it a little bit because it is 12 important. The evidence will show it. It deals with her 13 knowledge and intent, which is a lot of what this case is 14 about. She knows from long and hard experience in the criminal 15 courts that it is not only the clients you need to watch out 16 for. There are times when the police and the FBI don't tell 17 the truth. There are times when prosecutors don't tell the 18 truth. 19 And during the trial of Sheikh Abdel Rahman one of her 20 jobs was to stand up and cross-examine witnesses the government 21 was putting out there and get them to admit that they were not 22 truthful. 23 Ultimately, members of the jury, the jury convicted 24 Sheikh Abdel Rahman. Okay. That happened, we have accepted 25 it. But what Lynne Stewart believes is that the world is a SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2179 46MMSAT5 Opening - Mr. Tigar 1 better, safer place. Our country is better if they see that 2 even somebody accused can have a lawyer getting up and pointing 3 out the problems with the government's case. 4 Now, this need to exercise independent judgment comes 5 into play here because Sheikh Abdel Rahman was convicted. And 6 after he was convicted, then the question gets to be what are 7 his rights now? Does he have any under our system? 8 (Continued on next page) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2180 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 Well, she knew that she, as a matter of fact, didn't 2 have a choice. She was obliged by her oath as a lawyer to 3 continue to represent him unless she could think up some really 4 good reason not to and convince the court. She knew that he 5 had rights and responsibilities, and needed to see that rights 6 were respected and the responsibilities carried out. 7 So I want to make a difference here, a distinction. I 8 have said that lawyers need to be informed. I want to come 9 back to something I said at the beginning. You are going to 10 hear a lot of evidence in this case about really scary people 11 and really scary things, scary words -- fatwah, jihad, 12 terrorism. You are also going to hear over and over again that 13 Lynne Stewart is not charged with doing those things. The 14 evidence is before you because the effort will be to show that 15 they knew about those things and should have, and the evidence 16 will show did, take them properly into account when she was 17 representing here her client. She is nobody's fool. 18 So I want to talk a little bit, how does she live with 19 all of that? How does she live her life in a principled way to 20 deal with the dangers presented by things that are represented 21 by those buzzwords? Well, in order to be a lawyer in this 22 city, in these cases, Lynne Stewart thinks you have to know a 23 lot about terrorism. She did, and she does. And she knows 24 that it's important to safety, public safety, her safety, and 25 her family's safety that we not underestimate the threat of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2181 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 anarchistic and terrorist violence. 2 At the same time she believes that the careless use of 3 words by government, like terrorist and fatwah and jihad and 4 Islam and Muslim, the carelessness can contribute to wrong 5 decisions and to conduct by police and prosecutors that 6 violates people's rights. She has seen this sort of thing 7 happening during the 40 years she has been in law practice and 8 before that an activist. She is sensitive to it. She thinks 9 prosecutors and police share with all of humankind this 10 tendency to substitute labels for thinking. And you will hear 11 evidence that the prosecutors in Sheikh Abdel Rahman's trial 12 did just that. 13 Members of the jury, before the week is out you will 14 hear evidence about conclusion jumping of exactly that kind by 15 a government official. 16 The evidence will be also that prosecutors she dealt 17 with in the sheikh's case did some of that. Lynne Stewart 18 believes that using those labels carelessly, thoughtlessly, 19 without investigation, is the first step towards ethnic and 20 racial discrimination. She was arguing, and did argue, 21 throughout the period of the sheikh's confinement that the 22 strength of a strong America lies in a continuing commitment to 23 fundamental values. 24 Now, we put aside -- oh, there was another name, 25 wasn't there? Osama Bin Laden. Well, she didn't have anything SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2182 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 to do with him. At most that evidence won't be offered as to 2 her. There will be evidence she knew about a statement he made 3 in the year 2000. What did she think about Osama Bin Laden 4 back in 2000? She thought he was a mass murderer and a 5 dangerous man. She knew that he was a Saudi millionaire who 6 got his power by manipulating the cold war politics of the 7 Middle East. She knew he had nothing to do with her 8 representation of Sheikh Abdel Rahman's. She wanted nothing to 9 do about with him. Why? Because he and Taha, and a name that 10 wasn't mentioned here but will be, Al-Zawahiri, Bin Laden's 11 number 2 man, are dangerous and violent and hypocrites. Taha 12 and Al-Zawahiri are renegades from the Egyptian political 13 movement. They went out to Sudan and later Afghanistan to join 14 up with Bin Laden's group and she knew back in 2000 that any 15 association with those people would be lethal to the sheikh's 16 interest in trying to get fair treatment, something I am going 17 to talk about in a little bit of detail. She knew that. And, 18 therefore, they are emblazoning his name, what she thought was 19 so much dangerous hypocrisy. 20 As Judge Koeltl will instruct you, the events of 9/11 21 have nothing to do with this case. And so with Osama Bin Laden 22 and Luxor and the rest, it was Lynne Stewart's views that these 23 were hypocritical demands made by people trying to exploit 24 Sheikh Abdel Rahman's name and reputation for their own 25 purposes. And that they were in fact hurting the ability of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2183 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 her client to get fair treatment. Indeed, as I have shown a 2 little bit with that memorandum to the deputy Attorney General, 3 there were some things about this situation that high 4 government officials and Ramsey Clark and Lynne Stewart were 5 all in agreement about. 6 Well, let's now do our own time line, shall we? 1994. 7 It would be wonderful if we could play tape recordings of the 8 conversations with Ramsey Clark and Lynne Stewart and all those 9 lawyers back in 1995 and '96, but they don't exist. They were 10 never made. The government began to tap Mr. Sattar's 11 telephones in March '95 when he was working as a paralegal in 12 the trial. And they began to tap Mr. Yousry's telephones on 13 November 1st, '99. That is two groups of recordings. And then 14 they did not begin to tape record, to videotape, actually 15 videotape lawyer-client meetings, until the year 2000 and at 16 the same time later in the year 2000 to do audio recordings of 17 lawyer-client conversations. 18 There was never a wiretap on Lynne Stewart's 19 telephones -- ever. And there was never a secret microphone in 20 her home or office. 21 So how will the evidence come in? The government 22 didn't get it by taping. We have to wait until she takes the 23 stand. The only time you will hear Lynne Stewart's voice on 24 those calls is when she is talking to somebody else and, of 25 course, if two other people are talking in Arabic and she SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2184 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 doesn't speak the language, and most of that evidence is not 2 going to be offered as to her anyway. If we compare Lynne 3 Stewart's thousands of hours of work for Sheikh Abdel Rahman to 4 the pages of a book, the government will only have a very few 5 pages and when our turn comes we will have to try to present a 6 bunch more so you will have the whole book. 7 When you hear a recorded conversation, thus, please 8 ask, well, who is on the call? Which defendant does it 9 concern? Has there been any evidence that the call is 10 connected to Lynne Stewart? That is a part of what we are 11 asking for here, separate consideration. Now, when I say that, 12 I want to be clear. We are not pointing the finger at anybody 13 in this courtroom. We are not, and we don't. Our quarrel is 14 with the prosecutors. All I am saying is separate 15 consideration please. 16 Well, how will we present the rest of the story if all 17 these things happened so long ago? We are lucky. We are 18 lucky. Mr. Mohammed Yousry, sitting right over here, he is a 19 translator. I am not his lawyer but I have talked to his 20 lawyer so I think I know what the evidence will be about that. 21 He is a Ph.D. candidate. He has been a translator for the 22 government. He has been a translator for major networks 23 working on a Ph.D. about Egypt, married to a non-Mulim. You 24 will hear all of that. But the great thing is that he kept 25 notebooks. When he would go with the lawyers to a visit with SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2185 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 the client or they would be on the phone, he would take notes 2 in Arabic of what the client was wanting. And then if there 3 was a question could I read this to the client? Could I 4 transmit this on behalf of the client? He would make a note as 5 to whether the lawyers approved it or not. And oftentimes they 6 didn't. They said, no, you can't do that. 7 So the care that was taken to make these decisions is 8 going to be reflected in those notebooks and we certainly hope 9 and expect that Mr. Yousry will take the stand so we will have 10 some way to recreate this work. And also, then, we will have 11 some of the record of Sheikh Abdel Rahman's trial -- you know, 12 that trial went on for 9 months, and we will not replay it for 13 you, not even in fast forward. Just enough to get the idea of 14 what it was about. 15 So the notebooks. Now, there is a problem here 16 because the translation issues were significant. That is, 17 Sheikh Abdel Rahman speaks Arabic. He has a few words of 18 English. When the lawyers would go visit him even if you 19 recorded every one of those visits, you wouldn't get the whole 20 thing because the lawyers would meet with Mr. Yousry in advance 21 and say this is what can go on here. We need to regulate this. 22 And then after it was over he would relay things that the 23 client had said so that they would have a full picture on a 24 going-forward basis. 25 So you are going to hear different kinds of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2186 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 recordings. Some are going to be English language translations 2 of things that happen in Arabic where Lynne Stewart was not 3 present because she doesn't speak Arabic. There might be 4 English language translations that it will be easy to forget 5 they are not talking in English. And then there will be calls 6 where Lynne Stewart is talking and where things are said in 7 nuances, and so on, you will be able to use. 8 Well, if it's so hard, and I think it is to put all 9 this story together, some of it going back ten years, how are 10 we going to do it? 11 Let's take a date. October 1, 1995. What is that 12 date? That is the date that a jury in this building stood up, 13 came in and said guilty, guilty, guilty, as to Sheikh Abdel 14 Rahman. Now he is guilty, a major figure in the Islamic 15 community. He was in a courtroom just like this one but up on 16 the third floor. And Chief Judge -- now Chief Judge Michael 17 Mukasey called Ms. Stewart into his office and he said, you 18 know, the jury came in. He is guilty. They are going to move 19 him tonight. They are going to take him out of the 20 Metropolitan Correction Center, which is the jail behind this 21 building, and they are going to take him to Springfield, 22 Missouri, the prison hospital. And I want you to know because 23 I don't want him to be frightened because he is blind and you 24 can tell him what is happening and I don't want there to be any 25 question that he is being treated fairly. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2187 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 The idea that you needed to keep track of sheikh Omar 2 Abdel Rahman, that you needed to have somebody looking out to 3 make sure nothing bad was happening to him, that is not a Lynne 4 Stewart invention. That was an idea that she interpreted Chief 5 Judge Mukasey was saying and that senior Justice Department 6 officials were constantly aware of. So Lynne Stewart says to 7 herself, well, I came in second. That is what trial lawyers 8 say when the case is over, I came in second. It's like in 9 horseshoes, there really isn't any second; it means you lost 10 and there it is. And she said to herself, well, I came in 11 second, what do I do now? 12 Well, as a lawyer you know she has an obligation. Did 13 you know that? She had to stay in the case for the appeal 14 unless the judge let her out. Well, she got Ramsey Clark to 15 help and they did. They were going to take an appeal. But you 16 know they didn't have any illusions. Most people who appeal a 17 criminal conviction lose. Most convictions are affirmed. 18 Let's be clear. So we don't need to think about that too much. 19 Second, she knew that even if the appeals were denied 20 under our legal system a person that is in prison always has 21 the right if evidence comes out later that they were innocent 22 or that the government lied or something like that, they can 23 present a new case in court. They can get so-called 24 post-conviction relief. So she had that in the back of her 25 mind, but that could happen. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2188 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 But looking back at all the hours and days and weeks 2 and months of the case, Lynne Stewart realized that the first 3 issue was going to be prison conditions. He was blind. He had 4 diabetes. He had heart trouble and very soon everybody in 5 government recognized that if he were to die in United States 6 custody and somebody was able to say that the doctors didn't 7 treat him right, then that would not be a good day for America. 8 And so you will hear a lot of evidence about Ramsey Clark going 9 down and talking to the Justice Department officials to try to 10 make sure and far from throwing away the key, the Justice 11 Department officials eventually decided, first, that they would 12 move him to a prison, to a hospital in Rochester, Minnesota, 13 away from the prison hospital in Springfield. The one in 14 Rochester is still a prison but there are better doctors. That 15 they would allow an independent Medical Examiner, and then they 16 were going to try and find a Muslim person with credibility in 17 the Muslim world to spread the word that he was being treated 18 okay. 19 Those were initiatives the United States was doing. 20 After all, it was better, Lynne Stewart and Ramsey Clark 21 thought, to keep in contact with the government. Because if 22 somebody is looking over the shoulders of the guards, 23 metaphorically here because they are looking over the shoulders 24 in talking to people in Washington, there is a much better 25 chance that the rules are going to be respected and the kinds SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2189 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 of international incidents that could happen if the rules were 2 not respected could be headed off. 3 Now, Sheikh Abdel Rahman -- and you are going to hear 4 about this -- complained a lot about his prison conditions. 5 Like so many other people in prison, you know the first word 6 they want to say is "out". Well, that wasn't going to happen. 7 He was under a life sentence and a lot of his statements about 8 this were a result of his anger and bitterness and lack of 9 understanding and the lawyers had to process those. There is 10 one recording, as a matter of fact, where Sheikh Abdel Rahman 11 had talked to his wife. You are going to hear this. He had 12 apparently talked to his wife. He told her that he wasn't 13 getting his insulin. Well, I think this probably wasn't true. 14 He was trying to get his wife stirred up, not the first time 15 this happened in the world. And she then called Mr. Sattar and 16 she wanted to start some press campaign about the sheikh's 17 insulin, and so there is a phone call with Lynne Stewart 18 saying, well, you know, nobody on the outside knows whether or 19 not he is getting his insulin but don't do a press campaign -- 20 don't. 21 You see, the telephone conversation sounds banal, it 22 sounds trivial but it's one of those instances of the lawyer 23 doing her job on a day-to-day basis. 24 Well, yeah, okay prison conditions. Suppose all the 25 appeals were denied, suppose the prison conditions were ideal SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2190 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 and much was done about those as could be? Now what? And here 2 is an idea that the evidence is going to show, and you are 3 hearing it here for the first time, starting in about '97 4 Sheikh Abdel Rahman was famous. Okay, we know that. The 5 evidence will show it. Excuse me, you see, I did that. Many 6 people in these Islamic movements wanted to use his name for 7 their own purpose. They wanted to claim he supported their 8 actions. 9 Lynne Stewart knew there were people out there that 10 might take advantage of this. They might do violent acts to 11 take advantage of it. What did they decide to do? They knew 12 that any violent actions of that kind would cause an adverse 13 reaction, would not be in their client's interests. And you 14 will hear and see evidence that that is exactly the kind of 15 analysis that they did. Of course, they had to tell him they 16 thought -- because they thought the law, their law, the law 17 that says represent your client required it -- about the things 18 that were being done in his name. But they were very careful 19 about what information he did and didn't get. So what was 20 their conclusion? What will be the story that the evidence 21 tells, that Ramsey Clark and Lynne Stewart and these other 22 lawyers were doing? 23 He has lost all legitimate hope he is going to be set 24 free. He is in jail for his life and that is it. 25 But are there alternatives that would make the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2191 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 sentence of imprisonment more acceptable to the American 2 government, the Egyptian government, and to the client himself? 3 Was there a way for these lawyers to bring about a negotiated 4 solution that would involve the governments of Egypt and the 5 United States? How could they convince these governments that 6 their proposed solution would make America and the rest of the 7 world a safer place? And here is the evidence: Ramsey Clark 8 and Lynne Stewart knew that the sheikh's continued presence in 9 the United States in an American prison would draw unwanted 10 attention to the United States. His presence would be a 11 lightening rod for radical Islamists and they thought it would 12 be better and safer that the United States in its own interest 13 get him to a prison in another country. The added fact that he 14 was in poor health and was going to die in somebody's custody 15 made that more urgent. 16 Now, one might think of various countries, but they 17 were thinking about Egypt, an Egyptian jail. The background of 18 these discussions, which paints a very different picture than 19 what you will hear from the other side, is this: Ramsey Clark 20 with his experience knew that prisoner exchanges were a routine 21 part of international diplomacy, usually handled by cooperation 22 between the Department of Justice and the Department of State. 23 A lot of those happened in the Cold War years with Soviet 24 spies. 25 Now, in 1997 Ramsey Clark begins to discuss with SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2192 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 American and Egyptian officials the idea that Sheikh Abdel 2 Rahman should be moved out of the United States and into an 3 Egyptian prison. On February 7, '98, Ramsey Clark visited 4 Sheikh Abdel Rahman in Rochester, Minnesota. He told him that 5 the United States government understood the political 6 ramifications if the sheikh were to die in American custody. 7 He said that there might be a prospect of a prisoner exchange, 8 not freedom but a different jail. And Sheikh Abdel Rahman 9 agreed that this idea should be pursued, and this theme was 10 repeated over and over throughout the rest of 1998, through 11 1999, 2000, 2001. You will hear evidence of it. 12 Ramsey Clark made several trips to the Middle East. 13 He guaged the reaction of the Egyptian government. For 14 example, on September 18, '99 he met with Sheikh Abdel Rahman 15 again and outlined what would happen. Sheikh Abdel Rahman 16 would leave the United States, perhaps being deported. The 17 President would have to approve that. He would serve his time 18 in an Egyptian prison where he would be close to his family and 19 in comparatively familiar surroundings. 20 Now, why would the client agree to this? The client 21 might have a lot of agendas, and we certainly are going to hear 22 this evidence that a lot of violent Islamists had their own 23 agenda. But for the lawyers it was important to convince the 24 client this could be the best that could be done for you. 25 After all, the guards will speak Arabic. The food will be the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2193 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 kind of food that your religious obligations say you can eat. 2 When it's time for to you pray there will be a lot of people in 3 prison that share your faith and you will know that is the time 4 you can do that. 5 This was not a pipe dream. But the lawyers knew that 6 if their client was involved in a conspiracy to commit lawless 7 violence that would be the end. And that is why they didn't do 8 it. They didn't want to do it. They were opposed to it. 9 Now, there was a key figure in all of these 10 discussions, and I hate to put names on you but this is one 11 that is important, Muntasir Al-Zayat -- Muntasir Al-Zayat. He 12 is Sheikh Abdel Rahman's lawyer in Egypt. He is a leading 13 Egyptian human rights lawyer. Why do you need a human rights 14 lawyer in Egypt? Well, because they have military tribunals, 15 tortures, disappearances and whole lot of human rights 16 violations, so they have a human rights lawyer to deal with it. 17 Your opinion about that one way or another is not an issue 18 here. We are not trying to convince you who to vote for in 19 Egypt. But Muntasir Al-Zayat is known also as a consistent 20 opponent of violence in Egypt. He was probably a major 21 architect of that '97 call to nonviolence, a very important 22 figure. 23 Now, the lawyers knew that they were under media 24 attention. I mean, Ramsey Clark is meeting with people, senior 25 people in the Justice Department, in the Bureau of Prisons. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2194 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 Ramsey Clark is a well-known figure. Ramsey Clark is going to 2 Egypt. Ramsey Clark is holding press conferences and the 3 government of the United States isn't saying don't do it. They 4 are having negotiations. And, in fact, in addition to all of 5 this media work that was being done, not to encourage terrorism 6 but to try to do a negotiated solution, the Egyptian government 7 started to make statements that they would be willing to take 8 him, to get him out of the United States. 9 Now, the evidence will be that it never happened. The 10 American officials just wouldn't do it. The Egyptian officials 11 who knows, maybe that dried up. But despite the fact it was 12 proposed, and we will call Ramsey Clark as a witness, it just 13 didn't go anywhere. 14 So that is a context. That is what these lawyers 15 thought they were doing. That is why they were meeting with 16 their client. And that is why, members of the jury, far from 17 approving of any of these things that were going on, most of 18 which will be offered in evidence and not as to Lynne Stewart, 19 they weren't a part of it, didn't want to be a part of it, knew 20 that it was wrong to be a part of it, that wasn't in their 21 interest and it wasn't in their client's interest. 22 Oh, yes, but what about the special administrative 23 measures? Much of this trial will be taken up with evidence 24 about them. These measures did have the effect of placing 25 Sheikh Abdel Rahman in a kind of a solitary confinement and SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2195 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 there were affirmations signed, and Lynne Stewart signed every 2 single one of them in good faith. There was a challenge 3 because despite the SAMs there was ongoing media attention and 4 so long as the media was attaching Sheikh Abdel Rahman's name 5 to things, the lawyers had to deal with how to respond to that 6 to keep their client's name out of trouble. 7 They thought, and they had to navigate a very 8 difficult road, that the best way was to use their influence to 9 encourage an end to violence in Egypt. And that, as I say, 10 continued through all of those years. 11 Now, I want to take just two minutes, and I am getting 12 to the end, to discuss an item of evidence that has been 13 mentioned and that is going to be here. That is about Lynne 14 Stewart trying to keep the guards from hearing what is going 15 on. 16 Members of the jury, when Lynne Stewart talks to a 17 client she regards those conversations as confidential and she 18 takes steps to prevent outsiders from hearing what is being 19 discussed. When confidential client papers are on her desk she 20 turns them over when somebody else comes into the room. When 21 she is in court with a client she and her client whisper to 22 each other instead of standing up and discussing their business 23 so everybody can hear it. 24 Now, I mention this because you may hear somebody say, 25 well, gee, she tried to stop the prison guards from hearing SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2196 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 what was going on. Well, she probably did. And since whether 2 she did or not doesn't end the story the question is with what 3 intent she did it. Did she intend to violate the law? Of 4 course not. She thought she was obeying the law. She thought 5 she would be drummed out of the legal profession if she was 6 shouting her client's business from the rooftops. The idea 7 that confidentiality of communication is sinister is not one 8 that Lynne Stewart shares. And, as I say, we stand here ready, 9 and Lynne Stewart will stand ready and sit ready having taken 10 the oath to defend everything she was actually doing and of 11 course she obeyed the lawyer rules. 12 Now, the most serious and difficult part of this 13 case -- May and June of 2000. The evidence about that is not 14 going to come in all at once. I ask you please to keep an open 15 mind because what was said, with what intention it was said, 16 when it was said, that is a picture that won't be complete and 17 I predict if this case goes on a long time for months. Sheikh 18 Abdel Rahman had repeatedly said he wanted a end to violence in 19 Egypt. There were people in Egypt that he knew, however, were 20 still being held in prison for political crimes. And the 21 government of Egypt was continuing to round people up, torture 22 them, commit human rights violations. 23 Now, when our turn comes we are going to present the 24 full story of those May-June visits. Lynne Stewart did 25 communicate to the media the views of her client but it was not SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2197 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 a call to arms, it was not a direction to do violence, it was 2 not an encouragement to do violence, it was not any such thing. 3 She didn't think it was any such thing and she thought at the 4 time she did it that it was not only the lawful thing to do but 5 that as a lawyer sworn to advance her client's interest in 6 accordance with the law, and only the law, that it was the 7 right thing to do. 8 You will hear instructions on the law from the court. 9 You will hear evidence of Lynne Stewart's intent. You will 10 hear evidence of the words but, members of the jury, Lynne 11 Stewart did not, would not, issue anything that she thought was 12 a terrorist message or a call to arms. Not only because she is 13 not going to put her law license on the line for anybody, but, 14 members of the jury, because she knew that it was certainly not 15 in her client's interest to do any such thing, that that would 16 irrevocably sabotage any negotiations. 17 Now, let's look at it. After she does issue a 18 statement, which, as I say, you will have some evidence, what 19 is the form of the statement? The statement, the so-called 20 statement is not Lynne Stewart saying Sheikh Abdel Rahman says. 21 No. On May 20 Sheikh Abdel Rahman is in the prison. There is 22 Mr. Yousry; there is Ms. Stewart, and he says I want to dictate 23 a letter, not to Mr. Taha, the Sudanese Afghani terrorist, not 24 to Mr. So and so, I want to dictate a letter. Who do you want 25 to dictate it to? Muntasir Al-Zayat. Muntasir Al-Zayat -- your SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2198 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 lawyer in Egypt? Yes. And I want to ask him what good is 2 it -- I am still here, Muntasir, I thought I was supposed to be 3 able to go to Egypt. What is happening here? I understand 4 they are letting a lot of people out over there 'cause of the 5 cease-fire. What about me? 6 That was the context of the letter. It wasn't a 7 terrorist message. It was a letter to the lawyer in Egypt, 8 known as a lawyer who opposed violence. 9 And, members of the jury, I know I have taxed your 10 patience and I won't anymore, but I will tell you when Muntasir 11 sat and everybody started talking in Egypt about the sheikh's 12 condition this whole thing led to a reaffirmation of the 13 nonviolence initiative. That is what happened. 14 Well, the government didn't see it that way. Ms. 15 Stewart gets a call from this prosecutor, Patrick Fitzgerald, 16 and she gets a letter from him and he is some kind of upset. 17 And he -- as a matter of fact, he wrote a memorandum around 18 that time saying I let Ramsey Clark do this, but I am not 19 standing still for Lynne Stewart doing it. In effect, he says 20 that. So he writes a letter. Ms. Stewart, you did wrong and 21 you are never going to see your client again. She goes, that's 22 pretty bad. She thought that was the best that could happen, 23 she couldn't see the client, and even then they could have a 24 lawsuit about it. So they have months of negotiations, months. 25 And Mr. Fitzgerald originally said, I want you, Ms. Stewart, to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2199 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 admit that your client is a bad guy and this, that, and the 2 other way. And Ms. Stewart said, you know, as a lawyer I am 3 not really in the business of admitting my client is a bad guy. 4 I will admit that you think he is a bad guy. Fitzgerald backed 5 down and said, okay, if you admit we think he is a bad guy, and 6 he put it in there in some detail, you can go back and see him. 7 He backed down. 8 Now, those negotiations lasted, can you imagine this, 9 from June of 2000 on into 2001. That is a crucial time in the 10 government's evidence but not for Lynne Stewart because she 11 wasn't anywhere near Sheikh Abdel Rahman. And according to the 12 government -- the allegations, and and we don't know, I suspect 13 the evidence will be the wheels came off the wagon during that 14 time because there was a statement issued that Sheikh Abdel 15 Rahman supported this fatwah to kill a bunch of people. Well, 16 Lynne Stewart didn't know anything about that, had nothing to 17 do with it, didn't think it was a good idea, thought it was a 18 bad idea, but it didn't happen on her watch. 19 And she will tell you what she thinks of it when she 20 takes the stand. But that is not hers. 21 Now, one thing that is interesting about this, when 22 Lynne Stewart signed up to be able to go back and visit her 23 client, she did so in good faith and the government promised 24 her if she signed this piece of paper she could go see her 25 client and she would have confidential attorney-client SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2200 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 communications. Well, they never intended to keep that 2 promise, and they didn't. That will be the evidence. 3 Well, folks, I have talked too long. I don't know how 4 long it is because I didn't take my watch off. You know, like 5 somebody at the baptist service when the preacher took off his 6 watch somebody said, what does that mean, and somebody said, 7 well, not a darn thing. But anyway I am just about done now. 8 You know there is a letter Sheikh Abdel Rahman sent 9 back in 1996 and what he said was I want a Braille watch and I 10 want a Braille compass. I want to know what time of day to 11 pray. He wanted to feel the sun on his face. He wanted to 12 know what time to perform his religious obligation. But my 13 goodness me, he was a prisoner and he had been convicted of 14 doing horrific things. What was he owed by the system? But 15 Lynne Stewart understood what her client wanted. You will see 16 government officials that understood that and she is a 17 compassionate and brave and skillful and honorable lawyer and 18 she understood that if ever their client was to have any of 19 that, which everything else having been taken from him as a 20 consequence of his own criminality -- as a consequence of his 21 own criminality -- if ever he was to have any of that, to feel 22 this Egyptian sun on his face at the hour of prayer, that he 23 shouldn't be joining up with any conspiracies, only the truth 24 and the law would open that opportunity. And what these 25 lawyers courageously believed was that if that opportunity were SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2201 46MSSAT6 Tigar - opening 1 opened up and he were taken out of this country and to another 2 one, that that would show the United States and the world as a 3 place not afraid to deal creatively with its adversaries and 4 would remove this lightening rod from our custody. 5 Now, I have asked here, and I will ask again, please, 6 please, please keep an open mind. Sometimes the very last 7 thing you hear about some situation is the thing that decides 8 it for you. Sometimes it's the solution to the whole problem. 9 I have told you what we believe the evidence will be. I am not 10 by doing this going to assume a burden of proof that we don't 11 have. No, members of the jury, the prosecutors have that 12 burden beyond a reasonable doubt and when the case is all over 13 and the evidence is in I will stand before you again and point 14 out the ways in which we believe they have not carried it. 15 Members of the jury, Lynne Stewart is not guilty. 16 THE COURT: All right. 17 Ladies and gentlemen, that concludes the opening 18 statement on behalf of Ms. Stewart. We will take a break at 19 this point for ten minutes. Please remember my continuing 20 instructions not to talk about the case, always keep an open 21 mind until you have heard all of the evidence, and I have 22 instructed you on the law. 23 All rise please. 24 (Jury left the courtroom) 25 THE COURT: Can I talk to the lawyers again please. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2202 46MSSAT6 1 (Side bar conference) 2 THE COURT: A series of more administrative issues. 3 Jurors raised an issue with my deputy with respect to 4 their anonimity as it relates to members of their family and 5 friends who will know that they are on a long case and may put 6 2 and 2 together. The only thing that I believe I can tell -- 7 and I wanted to raise this now because I will tell the jurors 8 at the end of the day, the only thing I can tell the jurors, I 9 believe, is to say to them, ladies and gentlemen, I have asked 10 you please, please don't talk about this case and you may tell 11 your family and friends that you are on a long case but please 12 don't tell them anything else and don't answer any other 13 questions and you are following my instructions by doing 14 exactly that. 15 MR. STERN: I think you have to do something that is 16 impossible to be fair. There is no damage to say what case 17 they are on but their families are going to know. 18 THE COURT: My problem, as I told jurors in the course 19 of jury selection, is that when you begin to say individual 20 things, it never ends at that because then someone asks another 21 question or makes another comment. Much better to simply cut 22 it off at the pass, simply say I am on a long case, the judge 23 has told me that is it. 24 MR. STERN: I have heard you say that and there is a 25 lot of merit to what you say but you are encouraging them to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2203 46MSSAT6 1 lie to us because after 4, 6 months it's not realistic. It's 2 not as realistic. 3 THE COURT: I want to make it as comfortable to the 4 jurors as possible also. So if there is any suggestion that 5 anyone else has for me I would certainly welcome it and you can 6 talk among yourselves with respect to that. 7 MR. MORVILLO: Your Honor, I would like the 8 opportunity to talk to some of my colleagues back at the office 9 who have tried similar cases with an anonymous jury to see how 10 they handled the situation and perhaps I can shed some light. 11 I am not sure you feel the need to instruct them today if we 12 can put it off until tomorrow. 13 THE COURT: I don't. All I can do is tell them 14 tonight please don't talk about this case or anything to do 15 with it. A juror has asked for a separate bathroom for medical 16 reasons. We have a jury room, a smoking room and we also have 17 another room for a bathroom. We have another juror who asked 18 to stretch their legs by walking in the back corridor and so 19 they can walk in the back corridor. The back corridor is 20 closed off. We had a complaint about cleanliness of one of the 21 rooms which we will look into and we had a request for 22 Band-Aids. One juror needed a Band-Aid and that is being seen 23 to. 24 MR. RUHNKE: Can we have 15 minute to set up? 25 THE COURT: Absolutely. If you go over, do you want SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2204 46MSSAT6 1 me to keep the jury after 4:30 or do you want to go over until 2 tomorrow morning if you are not finished about that time? 3 MR. RUHNKE: I don't want to split it up. 4 THE COURT: We will keep going then. 5 THE COURT: Okay. 6 (Recess) 7 (Continued on next page) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2205 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 (In open court; jury not present) 2 THE COURT: Let's bring in the jury. 3 (Jury present) 4 THE COURT: Ladies and gentlemen, the next opening 5 statement will be given by Mr. Ruhnke on behalf of Mr. Yousry. 6 Mr. Ruhnke. 7 MR. RUHNKE: May it please the Court. 8 Ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. As you have 9 seen, I have prepared a slide show or Power Point show to try 10 to make the points across to you in the time that I have this 11 afternoon. 12 I wanted to start off just by thinking of and having 13 your thinking about your role as members of the jury in federal 14 court. When a jury comes back after a long trial and returns a 15 verdict of not guilty, it can say and it can mean one of many 16 things. The jury's verdict could reflect a decision on the 17 part of the jury that every member believes the person accused 18 was absolutely innocent and that it is a case that should never 19 have been brought, or it could mean that all or some members of 20 the jury thought, you know, I'm pretty darn suspicious, but it 21 hasn't been proven to me beyond a reasonable doubt that this 22 person, in fact, violated law. 23 And the only way either of those or anything in 24 between can be reflected is in your verdict of not guilty. You 25 have not heard any evidence yet. But once you have heard the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2206 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 evidence, and once each of you has done what you swore to do 2 yesterday, which was to well and truly try this case, you will 3 come to a verdict with regard to Mohammed Yousry. 4 We hope and we will argue to you and we will tell you 5 where the evidence will go and the verdict will go, and that 6 verdict is not guilty. And on the spectrum of where that lies, 7 that it belongs to the spectrum of, this was an innocent man 8 who was prosecuted, an innocent man was brought into court and 9 prosecuted for having committed no criminal actions whatsoever, 10 none. 11 The theme, as I put it up on the screen, is Mohammed 12 Yousry, an interpreter performing his job in good absolute good 13 faith, and he is not guilty of violating the law. 14 I'm David Ruhnke. I'm one of the attorneys 15 representing Mr. Yousry. That's Mr. Yousry to my right in kind 16 of a burgundy-colored sweater. To his left is David Stern, who 17 is the other attorney. Together we will be taking turns in 18 presenting witnesses. We will be taking turns in 19 cross-examining witnesses. And at the end of the case we will 20 sum up to you what we believe the evidence will have proven to 21 you or indeed, as the judge has said frequently, what the lack 22 of evidence has proven to you and where the lack of evidence 23 should take you. 24 Let's start a little bit about where this is going to 25 be. We start off with you're going to learn something about SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2207 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mohammed Yousry in the course of this trial. You are going to 2 learn that he was born in Cairo in Egypt in 1955. He is 3 approximately 48 years old now. You will learn that he grew up 4 in the Cairo area, that after completing high school he 5 attended a military college in Egypt and was made an officer, 6 lieutenant or leftenant, as they say over there, in the 7 Egyptian army. And you will learn that he came to the United 8 States in 1980. So he has been here nearly a quarter of a 9 century. Came here in 1980, settled in Queens, where he 10 married and raised a family. His wife Sara is not a Muslim. 11 She is originally from the Dominican Republic. She is a very 12 devout Christian. They raised a daughter Leslie. They raised 13 her as a Christian. She recently graduated from a Christian 14 college down south. 15 Mr. Yousry, as the evidence will show, as the last 16 item, is not a particularly religious person. He is not a 17 practicing Muslim at all. Indeed, as he will tell you when he 18 testifies, he has never even been in a mosque, not once, not in 19 his entire life. He is and was a Ph.D. candidate in Mideastern 20 studies at -- and a teacher at NYU and at the city College of 21 New York, teaching in Mideastern studies. He is and was a 22 respected Arabic translator, an interpreter, and he still does 23 that work, and he is still respected for his work. When he 24 goes home to his family in Queens every night, he continues to 25 work as the interpreter on other projects and continues to work SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2208 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 on the most important case that he has ever worked on in his 2 life, which is this case. 3 If friends and family had to describe him -- and you 4 will hear from some of the people in court. They will describe 5 him as hard working, as decent, as honest, as intelligent, and 6 friendly, just an overall nice guy who is not, as we say, a 7 radical Muslim, any kind of Muslim at all. In fact, in fact, 8 the evidence will be that he rejects the beliefs and goals of 9 Al-Gammal Islamyia, the Islamic Group. This is the group you 10 have heard so much today as to which Sheikh Rahman is 11 ostensibly the spiritual leader, and it is important that you 12 know what the goal and the overall goal of IG is. 13 The overall goal of IG, as publicly stated, is to 14 replace the current government in Egypt, the government, 15 President Mubarak, with an Islamic state, a state ruled by 16 Islamic law, the law of sharia. Mr. Yousry does not agree with 17 that goal. He would not like to see his home country become an 18 Islamic state, his home country where his mother still lives, 19 one of his brother still lives, one of his sisters lives. He 20 rejects that idea. He does not support it. 21 Therefore, he rejects the beliefs and goals entirely 22 of Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman because that is so important 23 because the government has said, that what Mr. Yousry wanted to 24 do in this case was to help Sheikh Rahman and help IG achieve 25 its goals in Egypt and that is completely something that SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2209 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mr. Yousry does not agree with and the evidence will show you 2 that he is not a terrorist. He is not a supporter of 3 terrorism. 4 And the final point that you need to know is that 5 Mr. Yousry will testify in his own defense. He will take the 6 witness stand. He will explain to you, ladies and gentlemen, 7 through his eyes, the events, the actions, the personalities of 8 the people who peopled this human drama, which is what a trial 9 really is. 10 Everyone has told you, the judge has told you, the 11 government has told you, Mr. Tigar told you a few minutes ago 12 and I am going to tell you, too, although there are three 13 people in this room all standing trial together, there are 14 simultaneously going on here three separate individual trials 15 so far as you are concerned. There is certain evidence that 16 the judge will tell you may not be considered at all against 17 Mohammed Yousry. There is certain evidence that the judge will 18 tell you applies only to other people in the case. And your 19 job is to sort out that evidence and keep kind of a tunnel 20 vision when you're deciding who is guilty, who is not guilty of 21 anything in this case. 22 This is the case of the United States against Mohammed 23 Yousry as far as I am concerned and far as David Stern is 24 concerned. There are two other people on trial in the case and 25 that is true. That also should be your concern when it comes SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2210 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 to your consideration of Mr. Yousry, that he is entitled to 2 your individual consideration. 3 Some just general orientation introduction. We can't 4 give you the whole case here. Indeed, Sunday was the first day 5 of summer. It is now June 22. By the time Mr. Stern and I are 6 able to actually start calling witnesses to the case we may be 7 in October. So I need now to give you an outline of where we 8 are going to go when we finally get our chance to go there. 9 In the fall of 1993, Mr. Yousry, who has been a 10 well-respected Egyptian translator, begins working for an 11 outfit known as Hess translation. Through that association he 12 is hired by an attorney involved in Sheikh Rahman's trial. 13 There were several defendants on trial in that case, not just 14 Sheikh Rahman. And he is hired to work on language issues, 15 translation issues at the trial that took place in 1994. 16 Through that association he first meets Sheikh Rahman 17 through Lynne Stewart, and he is later introduced to some of 18 the other attorneys who work -- come to work on the Sheikh's 19 case, including Abdeen Jabarra, whose name you heard previously 20 referenced to, Ramsey Clark, whose name you have heard 21 mentioned much more promptly, and others, and begins to work on 22 the Sheikh's case for the attorneys as their interpreter. He 23 is not Mr. Sheikh Rahman's translator. There is one job he has 24 as of many jobs. Like with many other jobs, he is working with 25 a group of attorneys and continues to work for this group of SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2211 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 attorneys over many years. 2 In late 1996, the Sheikh has decided he didn't want 3 Mr. Yousry to be working on his case anymore and other people 4 come along. However, in 1997, Ramsey Clark came to Mr. Yousry 5 and asked him to please resume serving as an interpreter on the 6 Sheikh's case on an as-needed basis and Mr. Yousry agreed that 7 he would do that. And he continued to serve as the interpreter 8 for four or five years after that. Several times he wanted to 9 quit because it was very time consuming. There were trips to 10 prison. He had other things that he wanted to do. And each 11 time the attorneys prevailed upon him to keep working on the 12 case because it was very difficult to get anyone approved to 13 act as an interpreter for the Sheikh because of the prison 14 conditions that he was under. 15 In reviewing the evidence here, you are looking for -- 16 I'm not the one to tell you what the law is, but in order to 17 find Mr. Yousry guilty, you are going to have to find beyond a 18 reasonable doubt that he had knowingly and intentionally and 19 deliberately and willfully to violate the law, that it was 20 something that it was his conscious purpose to do. He knew 21 what the law was and he consciously set out to violate it. He 22 knew what IG was and he consciously wanted to provide Sheikh 23 Rahman to that conspiracy. 24 So the key questions, did Mr. Yousry deliberately 25 intend to defraud the United States by working to defeat the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2212 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 SAMs? Did he knowingly and intentionally aid the Islamic Group 2 by providing personnel, meaning Sheikh Rahman, to another 3 conspiracy, not one he is charged in, but this conspiracy to 4 kill and kidnap people in Egypt? And did he rely in good faith 5 on how he conducted himself on what he did and what he did not 6 do on the lead provided to him by the attorneys involved in the 7 case? Those are all issues that you're going to have to decide 8 in this case. 9 Who were Sheikh Rahman's legal representatives? First 10 and fairly foremost was Ramsey Clark. Ramsey Clark is an 11 attorney who lives and practices here in New York City. He 12 served under Lyndon Johnson as the Attorney General of the 13 United States. He was to Lyndon Johnson as John Ashcroft is to 14 George Bush today, the nation's No. 1 law enforcement 15 authority. Abdeen Jabarra was another attorney. Mr. Jabarra 16 is of Arab-American heritage and, among other things, founded 17 an organization known as the Arab-American Defamation League to 18 protect the rights of Arab Americans. Lawrence Schilling was 19 another attorney who worked in Mr. Clark's office here in New 20 York City. He has an office in the West village. Mr. Clark 21 has an office in the West village. And Lynne Stewart was the 22 third attorney on this legal team. Ms. Stewart has been ably 23 spoken of by her counsel, Mr. Tigar. 24 The rules and his role, as Mr. Yousry understands 25 them -- this is about criminal intent. This is about whether SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2213 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mr. Yousry intended to violate the law or whether in all good 2 faith he did as the attorneys asked him to do, all the 3 attorneys asked him to do, all four of the attorneys asked him 4 to do, believing that he was not violating any law, believing 5 that he was acting properly, leaving it to the attorneys to set 6 the limits and to set the boundaries, and his role as an 7 interpreter was to follow the ground rules set by the lawyers. 8 He was the linguistic and cultural liaison between the 9 attorneys and their client. He spoke Arabic. He understood 10 the culture of Egypt, where Sheikh Rahman came from originally. 11 One of the benefits to Mr. Yousry of serving as the 12 attorney for the Sheikh was he was permitted by the attorneys 13 to pursue his doctoral thesis as a side bar to his 14 representation or has worked with the attorneys as the 15 interpreter. You will hear on tapes or in translation as these 16 conversations were recorded from time to time Mr. Yousry will 17 turn to one of the attorneys in the room, Ms. Stewart or 18 someone else, and say, I would like to ask the Sheikh a couple 19 of questions for my doctoral thesis. Do I have permission to 20 do that? And, generally speaking, the answer to that was yes. 21 At the time this was all going on, as I said, 22 Mr. Yousry was a doctoral student at NYU. He had his master's 23 degree in Middle Eastern studies. He had completed his studies 24 for a Ph.D. The only issue was what was his thesis going to be 25 about. And he kind of floundered around, looking for a thesis SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2214 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 topic. 2 We will present to you as witnesses the thesis advisor 3 and other officials from the Department of Middle Eastern 4 studies at NYU who will explain that it was basically their 5 idea that Mr. Yousry make a Ph.D. topic out of the life and 6 influence on Egyptian politics of Sheikh Rahman, that this was 7 a legitimate area of academic research, that it had not been 8 done. But Mr. Yousry had access to the Sheikh and had access 9 to amazing source material that had been gathered in various 10 investigations, that he had an approach to it that nobody else 11 had. And this was approved as a Ph.D. thesis topic for him. 12 The government tells you he had thousands of documents about 13 Omar Abdel Rahman at his home when it was searched. They will 14 tell you why. The reason why is he was pursuing this doctoral 15 thesis. 16 He was not a decision maker or a line drawer. That 17 was very clear. He was working for the attorneys. The 18 attorneys decided what was to be done, what was not to be done, 19 what was approved, what was not to be approved. His job was 20 not to make the decisions or draw the lines. When the 21 attorneys set the ground rules, since they had each signed the 22 SAMs -- when I'm talking about the attorneys, please understand 23 I'm not just talking about Ms. Stewart. I'm talking about all 24 four of the attorneys involved in this case. 25 Mr. Yousry, as you will probably come to see when he SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2215 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 testifies, and certainly you will glean from the way other 2 people speak of him, was, as part of this group, an intelligent 3 and knowledgeable person whose suggestions were welcome and 4 valued. But he was not hired by the Sheikh. He was brought in 5 the case by the attorneys. He was not to act as a spokesperson 6 or representative of the Sheikh. Attorneys were the one -- 7 this is one of the ground rules -- were to do all the talking, 8 not the interpreter, but the attorneys were to do the talking. 9 You heard evidence that Mr. Yousry's home phone was 10 tapped in 1999. And for three or four years the Federal 11 Government was able to listen in on his conversations from 12 home. And you will find none of this outreach to this shadowy 13 world of terrorism, or whatever the government called it, in 14 any telephone or any tap that was used on Mr. Yousry phone. 15 That's because he is not a terrorist. He is not a supporter of 16 terrorists. That's because he does not want to aid terrorism 17 as his goal. He wants to do his job as an interpreter and 18 that's what he tried to do in this case. 19 And there was a routine for these meetings. Before 20 going into the meetings, whether it was a phone call, you will 21 learn from the evidence a lot of facts that you have not 22 internalized yet and hasn't become part of the case yet. You 23 will learn that for a period of time there were weekly 24 telephone calls that went into Mr. Clark's office from the 25 prison in either Rochester, Minnesota, the prison hospital in SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2216 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Rochester, Minnesota, and that before any of these meetings 2 took place or phone calls took place or prison visits took 3 place, there was an agenda. What are we going to talk to the 4 Sheikh about today? What do we need to cover? You would be 5 justified in concluding from some of the things that you heard 6 that the Sheikh's weekly phone calls became something of a 7 chore to the attorneys. The Sheikh would call every week, 8 complain about the prison conditions. The attorneys were kind 9 of to a point where they were almost shuffling off speaking to 10 the Sheikh that week. 11 You will learn that all of the attorneys involved in 12 the case would say to Mr. Yousry: We want you to read the 13 Sheikh news of the world this week. What is the international 14 news that might bear on his case or be of interest to him and 15 would approve newspaper articles that Mr. Yousry was then 16 directed to read to the Sheikh, or would disapprove newspaper 17 articles, and, no, we don't want that one read to the Sheikh. 18 So the attorneys prescreened what Mr. Yousry did. 19 And then the attorneys postscreened. After one of 20 these meetings, after a visit at the prison there would be a 21 second meeting. And at that second meeting discussion would 22 be, Mr. Clark, Sheikh Rahman dictated to me the following 23 letter that he wants to send to one Montasser al-Zayyat, for 24 example. What about that? Here is a translation. Mr. Clark 25 would say, yes, I approve that being translated to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2217 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mr. al-Zayyat or I don't approve of it being transmitted to 2 Mr. al-Zayyat. If the attorney said no, it shouldn't be 3 transmitted, it didn't get transmitted to anybody except 4 through the attorneys as the firewall, as the final arbiter of 5 what was right and what could go and could not go under the 6 SAMs. 7 These prison visits, the telephone calls were limited 8 in time. The prison visits were difficult. They were 9 expensive and difficult to set up, coordinate. The phone calls 10 were limited in the amount of time. So often what would 11 happen -- I'll show you concrete, real-life examples of it in a 12 couple of minutes. 13 Often what would happen is beforehand at the meeting 14 they would say, we want you to talk to the Sheikh about this, 15 we don't want you to talk to the Sheikh about this, we want you 16 to talk to the Sheikh about that. That's what Mr. Yousry would 17 do at the meeting and would come back after the meetings: This 18 is what he said about this, this is what he said about that, 19 this is what he said about the third topic. Then it would be 20 up to the attorneys, as the people who made the decision, what 21 goes past this point. The attorneys would sign the SAMs. 22 Whose word was on the line were the ones who made those 23 decisions. 24 What about the SAMs, special administrative measures? 25 But we are going to be calling them SAMs for months, SAMS. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2218 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mr. Yousry was not required to sign or even read them. Was he 2 generally familiar with what the SAMs were all about? Yes. To 3 the extent that he knew there were things that maybe could be 4 talked about or not talked about, but that it was up to the 5 attorneys to give him the guidelines. The attorneys 6 interpreted and applied the SAMs and the attorneys established 7 the working rules. 8 What are the rules? The rules are as we do. It is 9 like any office anyone has worked in. There may be rules that 10 are written down, but what goes on every day in the office are 11 the rules of the office, the working protocols of an office. 12 The attorneys established the protocols, the working rules, 13 which Mr. Yousry was required to follow in working on Sheikh 14 Rahman's case. 15 Then there is reference to the Yousry notebooks. What 16 are they and why are they so important? The evidence will be 17 that from the earliest times of his association as an 18 interpreter for the attorneys who are representing the Sheikh, 19 Mr. Yousry kept regular records in the regular course of his 20 business as an interpreter, keeping track of what had been 21 discussed, keeping track of what had been approved, keeping 22 track of what had been disapproved, and he had these notebooks 23 and there is a stack of them. 24 He had them in his home in the spring of 2002, when 25 the FBI came in and scooped them all up as evidence in the SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2219 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 case. So we have them. We have them as preserved. During 2 that same search, the FBI scooped up his computer laptop and 3 copies of his doctoral thesis in draft and we will talk about 4 that in a few minutes. 5 Why they are so important is, it is not just me saying 6 to you the attorneys established the rules or some things were 7 approved or some things weren't approved. It is right there in 8 the notebooks. 9 Let's talk about the notebooks a little bit. It is a 10 cover of one of the notebooks, not terribly illuminating. It 11 is the kind of thing you are going to be seeing. There is 12 another cover of the one of the notebooks. Let's look at a 13 typical page of one of the notebooks. Pay special attention, 14 to attorney approvals and the idea of an agenda or topics that 15 had been covered and discussed. This is from the Yousry 16 notebooks, actually page 915 of the notebook as renumbered 17 after received from the FBI. And here you see the phrase, 18 approved by Mr. Clark. So that what followed, discussion that 19 followed was things that the Sheikh had spoken with Mr. Yousry 20 about or that there had been a premeeting about and Mr. Clark 21 had said, yes, these are topics that you may discuss, these are 22 topics we want answers to and brings us back the results. 23 Closer look. Closer look at the attorney approval. 24 That's the signature -- that's the handwriting of Mr. Yousry 25 and his notation that on that day, in Arabic, were discussed to SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2220 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 be approved. Not by Ms. Stewart, but at this time by Ramsey 2 Clark. 3 Closer look at the agenda, these are items, Arabic you 4 will learn, I learned, is written right to left, as it was not 5 confusing enough. So when you see these items here, these are 6 various topics that were all discussed that day where the 7 arrows are that Mr. Yousry has written in his Arabic 8 handwriting as topics that were discussed on a particular day. 9 Again, as I said before, before doing any of this, 10 there was the protocol, what are we going to talk about today? 11 Is this a topic that I can talk about? We want you to ask him 12 this question, we want you to ask those questions. All 13 approved ahead of time. There are literally hundreds of what 14 about I'm about to show you, very quickly, which is a sampling 15 from the attorney's approvals in the notebooks. First was 16 something that was approved by Lynne Stewart. Next, notation 17 that something that the Sheikh had said to Mr. Yousry was 18 translated and given to Mr. Clark. That's what this 19 handwriting is down here. 20 A Japanese public TV interview with the Sheikh 21 approved by Mr. Clark. Japanese public television had several 22 questions that they wanted to ask the Sheikh about his 23 conditions of confinement, how his health was and along those 24 lines. These are all up here in Arabic. And you will learn 25 that with Mr. Clark's permission through Japanese television SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2221 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 had contacted Mr. Clark and said, we would like to ask the 2 Sheikh these questions. Mr. Clark said, yes, those are 3 appropriate questions to ask. Mr. Yousry asked the questions 4 during a telephone call or prison visit and wrote down the 5 answers. Later on Mr. Clark said, some of those answers you 6 can give to the Japanese TV reporter, you cannot. Fortunately, 7 we have a tape recording of a conversation between Mr. Yousry 8 and the Japanese TV reporter saying, basically, well, I did, 9 and we asked the questions, but there were certain things that 10 the attorneys wouldn't approve, this is what they did approve, 11 perfectly done with his way of understanding what his role was 12 and what the role of the SAMs were. 13 Can anyone be blamed for looking at this and saying, 14 well, if all the attorneys are telling me it is okay to answer 15 these questions and give them back to the attorneys, then they 16 were writing, that must be legal. Why would they be allowing 17 me to do that? All of the attorneys involved in the case. 18 I will show you more. I told you about a lawyer named 19 Larry Schilling. It says Larry Schilling, approved by 20 Mr. Larry. There is a date somewhere in the year of 2000 of 21 Mr. Schilling in one of the phone calls, says, yes, you can do 22 this; yes, you can do this; no, you can't do that. 23 As far as any of the attorneys understood the SAMs as 24 a lockbox, as the government posits, is not borne out by what 25 the evidence was. There is another one, approved by SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2222 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 Mr. Schilling, Mr. Larry Schilling, approving it. Here is one 2 approved by Abdeen Jabarra and Lynne Stewart together. Here is 3 another one approved by Abdeen Jabarra, Mr. Jabarra, who is 4 over here. There is two particular sections of this Arabic 5 document that Mr. Jabarra particularly picked out to be read to 6 the Sheikh. 7 Every single one of the attorneys had Mr. Yousry read 8 newspaper articles to the Sheikh, every single one. Not one 9 thought there was a problem with it. And there were 10 disapprovals, not approval by Mr. Jabarra. Either it wasn't 11 read to the Sheikh or whether it was something that the Sheikh 12 wanted to communicate to somebody else, that particular item 13 was not approved. 14 Here is one, do not read, as per Lynne Stewart. 15 Yousry is taking his guidance from the attorney and he is 16 saying, this part you can't read, this part you can read. 17 That's one from Lynne Stewart. I think there was another one 18 from Mr. Jabarra coming up; again, not to be sent, per Abdeen. 19 Abdeen is Mr. Jabarra's first name. Whatever it was that 20 Mr. Yousry had taken down from the Sheikh had been reviewed and 21 it wasn't going to go anywhere. It wasn't going to be sent 22 anywhere at all. 23 I told you a bit about the doctoral dissertation. 24 This was the title, the working title of the dissertation: 25 Sheikh Abdel Rahman, the Mujahid Among Scholars and the scholar SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2223 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 among Mujahideen, which means a fighter among scholars and a 2 scholar among fighters. This is not light reading. I would 3 not stay up at night reading this. Sheikh Omar Comprehensive 4 Muslim Revolution, or an alternative to a totalitarian problem 5 or an alternative to totalitarian problems. 6 From that particular section of his dissertation -- 7 and this can only be written in an academic setting. But what 8 the Sheikh does not recognize -- remember I told you earlier, 9 remember I said earlier, he does not support the goals of the 10 Sheikh or of the IG movement. He is writing about that and 11 critical of that in the Ph.D. movement when the FBI comes to 12 search his house in the spring of 2002. 13 How is this for a lengthy sentence? But what the 14 Sheikh does not recognize is that his antitotalitarianism, 15 antideterminist and antiessentialist alternative project of 16 comprehensive Muslim revolution, which was conceived and 17 practiced within the historical context of colonialism and 18 neocolonialism, is paradoxically centered in Muslim 19 totalitarianism, determinism and essentialism. 20 The sentence doesn't stop. This is his view of the 21 Sheikh's movement. In other words, he is exchanging one form 22 of totalitarianism for another. He sees the Sheikh's movement 23 as simply substituting one form of totalitarianism that has a 24 Mubarak dictatorship with another form of totalitarian 25 government, a Muslim state, a law based on the state of Muslim, SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2224 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 something that Mr. Yousry does not ever want to see come about 2 for his home country of Egypt. 3 There is a translation issue that may or may not come 4 up in this case in many of the prison visits. The translators 5 translate the word afendm, meaning Mr. or sir as if it meant 6 your eminence. So they have Mr. Yousry speaking to the Sheikh 7 as if he was somebody he greatly revered when in fact the 8 Arabic word afendm is simply sir or Mr. Whether we have to 9 fight about that or not remains to be seen. 10 Six particular allegations from the indictment. I 11 want to talk about specifics, not generalities, because the 12 allegations were very specific. I want to talk about the 13 bombing of the U.S.S. Cole. I want to talk about Mr. 14 Morvillo's statement that Mr. Yousry was a witness at the 15 Sheikh's trial, a defense witness at the Sheikh's trial. 16 I want to talk briefly about Abu Sayyaf, and I want to 17 talk about the February 2000 quote unquote, failure to deliver 18 a message. I want to talk about distracting the guards and I 19 want to talk about the anti-Jewish fatwah. I will do them 20 briefly. It has been a long day for you all. And I am not 21 going to have a chance to talk to you for a long time and I am 22 not going to have a chance to present evidence to you for a 23 long time. 24 Start with the U.S.S. Cole. Here are the facts and 25 this is the role of the bombing, that terrible bombing of a SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2225 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 naval destroyer that rocked us all in the fall of 2000. There 2 is a U.S. ship bombed in Aden, Yemen on October 12, 2000. 3 Several days later there is a call to Mr. Sattar that he should 4 somehow negotiate with the United States Government and use the 5 Cole as leverage to free the Sheikh. Nothing happens now for 6 nine months. And there is a prison visit on July 13, 2001 and 7 the entire discussion of the U.S.S. Cole takes about three 8 pages and it basically is brought to the Sheikh's attention 9 with permission from the attorneys. Ms. Stewart is there. And 10 the Sheikh says basically: What, are you kidding? Leave this 11 to the lawyers. Sattar should never ever be involved in any 12 kind of discussion like this. And they leave it by joking, by 13 saying, anyway, it was probably the FBI calling Sattar in the 14 first place and making up this story, and that's it. That's 15 the role that the bombing of the U.S.S. Cole plays in this case 16 and that's it. 17 A defense witness at the Sheikh's trial, that's 18 absolutely true. It is one of the few things I can say that I 19 agree with Mr. Morvillo that is absolutely true, that 20 Mr. Yousry testified as a defense witness at the Sheikh's 21 trial. There is more to the story than that sort of broad 22 headline. He testified as an expert in Arabic. He testified 23 for several defendants in the case in his role as an Arabic 24 interpreter on the meaning of various Arabic words and Arabic 25 phrases. To draw the conclusion that he was a defense witness SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2226 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 for the Sheikh, that may be technically accurate to say that's 2 true, but it is about as accurate as saying that the person 3 from the weather bureau comes in to say it was raining that day 4 as a witness for the defense in a case in all but most the 5 technical sense 6 There was a newspaper report discussing the kidnapping 7 of tourists that discussed the Sheikh and it is read during a 8 prison visit of May 19 and 20, 2001. And Mr. Yousry starts to 9 inform the Sheikh about the newspaper article and the Sheikh 10 says he already knows about it because another one of the 11 attorneys, Abdeen Jabarra, had already told him about this. 12 That's how this comes into this case. Nobody, nobody at this 13 table says in any size, shape or form that the Sheikh ordered 14 what happened in the Philippines to occur or knew about it 15 ahead of time, or anything of that nature. That's where Abu 16 Sayyaf comes in. Abu is an Arabic word that means father of, 17 so Abu Sayyaf is the father of Sayyaf. I may have it 18 backwards. 19 In February 2000, failure to deliver a message, 20 remember Mr. Morvillo talking about this, how they were trying 21 to get a message back from the Sheikh and the Sheikh wouldn't 22 give it to Mr. Jabarra. I think the suggestion was made 23 because he didn't trust Mr. Jabarra. The truth is oh so much 24 simpler and so common. Just basically a classic 25 misunderstanding of a conversation. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2227 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 The truth is this. The Sheikh wanted to dictate a 2 letter about the sale of certain property that he had. 3 However, he had not paid Mr. Jabarra for several years and he 4 realized that he started dictating a letter and Mr. Jabarra 5 speaks Arabic and Mr. Jabarra might very well say, Sheikh, by 6 the way, as long as you're selling this house, why don't you 7 start paying some of the attorneys bills that are brought up 8 and two weeks later the whole issue is resolved. There will be 9 discussions of during that prison visit how Mr. Jabarra left 10 the room and left Mr. Yousry and the Sheikh alone by 11 themselves. If somebody wanted to sneak a message out or 12 deliver a message back, there was plenty of opportunity to do 13 that. It is a perfectly innocent conversation that's been 14 given an inaccurate spin by our government. 15 Distracting the guards. This is what one of the 16 attorneys refers to as her academy award or award conversation 17 when the guard came too close. The real purpose of all this 18 was to get the visit completed without having to explain what 19 was going on. This had been a practice. This wasn't the first 20 or last time that that kind of conversation had occurred 21 because nobody wanted a prison visit which was difficult to 22 arrange, stopped. People said, how come you're not answering 23 questions and just the interpreter is reading to the Sheikh? 24 So they set this thing up. It looks bad. In reality, it looks 25 bad, but there is nothing sinister going on. There is nothing SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2228 46MMSAT7 Opening - Mr. Ruhnke 1 going on that justifies an inference that anybody thinks they 2 are doing anything wrong. 3 The ghostwritten fatwah. You will hear about this 4 fatwah that was published as having come from Sheikh Rahman 5 when in fact it did not. The evidence associated with that 6 hateful document is not admissible at all as to Mr. Yousry. 7 Remember when I said before, it gets a little hard, you have to 8 keep things separately. This is evidence that is not 9 admissible as to Mr. Yousry. 10 Why do I talk about it? Because when he learned about 11 it, when he learned from newspaper reports that there had been 12 this fatwah published, this hateful fatwah published attributed 13 to Sheikh Rahman, Mr. Yousry said, I'm the only one who talks 14 directly to the Sheikh. I'm the only Arabic interpreter that's 15 approved. I know that nothing like that was ever, ever 16 discussed between the Sheikh and any of the attorneys, and they 17 are going to blame me or they are going to blame the attorneys 18 for this. And when he raises this with Sheikh Rahman, when he 19 says Sheikh, how did this happen, how did this statement get 20 into the media, Mr. Sheikh Rahman turns to Mr. Yousry and says, 21 in English, Mr. Yousry, that is none of your business. A 22 perfect illustration of the nature of the relation that 23 Mr. Yousry had. 24 (Continued on next page) 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2229 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 Another topic that nobody else has talked about, which 2 I will talk about, was when September 11, 2001 came it changed 3 all of our lives in many, many case that we can't even begin to 4 catalog. We are standing 6 blocks from where the World Trade 5 Center stood. The day after September 11, the FBI came to 6 Mr. Yousry and they asked him would you keep us informed as to 7 what is going on between the sheikh and his attorneys, what is 8 doing, what are they talking about, what kind of topics are 9 under review, and Mr. Yousry, believing, and still believing to 10 this day, that he has done nothing wrong except follow the lead 11 of the attorneys, over the next several months every time there 12 was a phone call, every time there was a prison visit, the FBI 13 would come knocking on his door and say what happened, what 14 took place? And it was a kind of a test I guess because at the 15 same time these things are being tape recorded and I suppose 16 they are trying to see what Mr. Yousry is doing or not doing. 17 And you will find that this is the evidence, that everything he 18 told the FBI was the truth. 19 They didn't believe he was doing anything wrong and 20 they didn't believe the attorneys were doing anything wrong and 21 therefore he was cooperative with the FBI. And it amounts to 22 particularly compelling evidence of somebody who as I started 23 off telling you is actually innocent of setting out to violate 24 the law. He thought what he was doing was so far removed from 25 violating the law that it didn't concern him to tell the FBI SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2230 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 what was happening, tell the FBI what the discussions were 2 about, tell the FBI what was being discussed. He didn't think 3 he was doing anything wrong. 4 And when it comes to criminal intent, which is at the 5 heart of this case, when it comes to Mohammed Yousry, when it 6 comes to criminal intent none of us are given and none of us 7 have a machine in which we can look into someone's heart or 8 mind or soul and say, well, what did that person intend? What 9 was that person really trying to do? What was that person 10 thinking about? The government has taken onto itself the job 11 of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that Mr. Yousry intended 12 to violate the law, not that he relied on the attorneys, not 13 that he went about his business in a way that he thought was 14 correct, but that he knew was against the law and he intended 15 to violate the law, he did it deliberately, he did it and it 16 was no accident, and that is what they are taking onto prove to 17 you. 18 In a sense, the government has entered into a promise 19 and a contract. In fact, we are all part of that promise and 20 contract, and it's this: They have promised to prove it beyond 21 a reasonable doubt. You promised, when you promised to well 22 and truly try the case, to say if they don't, then we are 23 returning verdicts of not guilty in this case. It will be a 24 long time before we get to present any evidence to you. 25 Mr. Yousry is an innocent man. He is being wrongfully SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2231 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 prosecuted in this case and it's going to be up to you to set 2 it right. 3 Thank you very much. 4 THE COURT: Ladies and gentlemen, it's a little past 5 but just about the time that I said that we would end each day, 6 so we will end for the day and we will pick up tomorrow morning 7 with the opening statement on behalf of Mr. Sattar, which will 8 be given by Mr. Paul. 9 Let me reiterate again the instructions which I have 10 given you. 11 Please remember not to talk about this case at all 12 among yourselves or with anyone when you go home tonight. As I 13 said, you can tell your family and friends that you are a juror 14 in a case but don't tell them anything else. 15 Remember, ladies and gentlemen, not to look at or 16 listen to or read anything about the case. If unavoidably or 17 inadvertently you see something simply turn away. You are in 18 the best position to hear what goes on in court, so please 19 don't look at or listen to anything to do with the case. 20 Remember always to keep an open mind, and I have 21 emphasized that to you also repeatedly. Keep an open mind 22 until you have heard all of the evidence, I have instructed you 23 on the law, and you have gone to the jury room to begin your 24 deliberations. Fairness and justice requires that you do that. 25 We will begin tomorrow morning at 9:30. I know your SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2232 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 transportation will be taken care of. Have a very good evening 2 and I look forward to seeing you all tomorrow morning. 3 All rise please. 4 (Jury left the courtroom) 5 THE COURT: Please be seated all just for a moment. 6 When we met the other other day, the parties raised 7 with me a question with respect to the technology and I said my 8 preference is to have the parties work the screen and you all 9 were going to get a familiarization both with the podium and 10 with where we are on the system. 11 Has all that been done yet? 12 Everyone? 13 MR. RUHNKE: Yes. The one issue we raised with the 14 technical people was there is one sort of master control screen 15 in front of Ms. Baker right now which controls the whole set 16 up. And there is none at the podium. There is none at defense 17 counsel. We asked, and didn't get a reply, whether we can 18 possibly have one at defense counsel's table as well. 19 MS. BAKER: Just to add the little bit that I know on 20 that question from my office's computer and support staff, 21 actually I am told that there is another one of those up there 22 in front of your Honor, but that the way the courtroom is wired 23 currently they just can't make one reach back to the defense 24 table. We would certainly be happy to have it happen but I 25 have been told that it's just not able to be done at the moment SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2233 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 and my impression was that there wasn't much optimism about 2 changing that. If your Honor has any way to look into it, but 3 I was told it was something to do with the wiring, that the 4 wiring won't run back there. 5 THE COURT: As far as I can see there is no reason for 6 me to have it if I am not controlling it. I can ask. I will 7 ask. 8 MS. BAKER: Your Honor, my understanding is it's the 9 courthouse staff people who would have to arrange for the 10 wiring. 11 THE COURT: I understand what you are saying. Okay. 12 But at this point you have worked out at least a mode 13 of operating that you will direct that the document be shown to 14 the witness and the examiner and the court and not on the 15 screens for the jury or the big screen until I say so. 16 MS. BAKER: Yes, your Honor, that is correct. 17 THE COURT: Okay. 18 Anything else before we break? 19 MR. STERN: Two other things. 20 One is it's our collective opinion, and especially 21 having listened to your final instructions, that you should 22 tell the jury what case it is. I say that because I think it's 23 going to be -- this is a case people are going to be 24 discussing. It was on the cover of the Metro section of the 25 New York Times today. I think it's easier to say to family SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2234 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 members when they say, hey, did you see whatever it maybe they 2 see, you know, I can't talk about it because I am on that case, 3 than to say I am on something for 6 months and by coincidence I 4 can't talk about it. It doesn't make sense us to. I know the 5 government doesn't have a position yet but I think that is our 6 position on that. 7 The other issue I have is we have been given 3500 8 material on Pat Fitzpatrick who, it's my understanding, is 9 testifying tomorrow and in that 3500 material, referring 10 specifically 3516P and Q, there are parts that are redacted. I 11 know you don't have it but it comes after the words "pertinent 12 developments" and the government in their opening suggested 13 that they were going to talk about FISER intercepts that were 14 ongoing and separate from the criminal investigation. Not 15 knowing what this says I can't comment on whether it's relevant 16 to that or relevant to anything. But it seems to me at a 17 minimum you should examine it and it should be given to you in 18 camera and you should make a determination rather than us being 19 given redacted copies of statements of Mr. Fitzgerald and no 20 one other than the government knowing what they say. 21 THE COURT: All right. 22 MR. MORVILLO: Your Honor, just so the record is 23 clear, you have reviewed these documents before. They were 24 given to the court prior to the September 28 hearing in 2003, 25 so you have seen these. The portions that are redacted are, in SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2235 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 the government's opinion, not the subject matter of Mr. 2 Fitzgerald's testimony, first of all, and, secondly, also work 3 product. It may be that during the course of his testimony 4 some of this will become the subject matter of his testimony 5 and if that happens of course it would become his 3500 material 6 to the extent it wasn't privileged. And so I am happy to 7 provide the court in camera this evening copies again of this 8 document, assuming your Honor still does not have them in 9 chambers. 10 THE COURT: Well, I thought I would have filed at the 11 time anything that I dealt with in connection with the past 12 hearing. I don't think I would still have that stuff. I can't 13 be sure, first. And, second, I think under the statute if 14 there is a question with respect to redaction you do have to 15 give it to me for me to look at it. I may not be able to rule 16 until I hear from Mr. Fitzgerald on direct to see if it's 17 relevant to the subject matter of the direct, but, yes, you do 18 have to give it to me tonight. 19 Secondly, after I have reviewed it, I think I have 20 to -- unless the parties agree otherwise -- see that it gets 21 filed under seal so that it's available for review. So, yes, 22 give it to me tonight. 23 MR. MORVILLO: I will send it over forthwith. My only 24 point is you had previously undertaken this exercise under very 25 similar circumstances. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2236 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 MR. TIGAR: If I may add, your Honor, at the earlier 2 hearing the question was whether it was producible at all under 3 26.2 at a motion hearing for the issues there being tried. The 4 subject matter of this direct testimony is obviously different. 5 The second point I wish to make is that I think there 6 is that Goldberg case back in 1976 in which the court held that 7 the work product doctrine didn't apply to Jencks material. I 8 can get that citation to the court as soon as I can get onto 9 Westlaw, but I do remember that quite clearly. 10 THE COURT: Well, the reason for the redaction, I take 11 it, is while there is an argument of work product the basis for 12 the redaction is not work product but not relevant to the 13 subject matter of the direct, right? 14 MR. MORVILLO: That is correct. It's a hybrid, your 15 Honor, but the primary thrust is that it's not relevant to the 16 subject matter of his direct. 17 THE COURT: Because if it were relevant to the subject 18 matter of the -- 19 MR. MORVILLO: That is correct, we would have given it 20 to you already. 21 THE COURT: You would have given it to the defense 22 already. 23 MR. MORVILLO: We would have moved to preclude those 24 portions that we didn't believe are work product from being 25 disclosed. But, again, that is a circular argument. In other SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2237 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 words, we won't be adducing testimony that they we think would 2 waive the privilege. 3 MR. TIGAR: Your Honor, the basis -- I didn't mean to 4 interrupt the court. 5 THE COURT: There would be a real question whether if 6 it really did relate to the subject matter of the direct 7 whether there was a substantial need then for the work to be 8 produced. 9 MR. MORVILLO: Absolutely, your Honor. 10 MR. TIGAR: Your Honor, the basis of our concern, and 11 why we are joining Mr. Stern, is that in opening government 12 counsel gave a reason that they said was why the government 13 didn't step in and stop these lawyer-client calls and he said 14 there was an intelligence investigation going on and described 15 it in some little detail. 16 Now, I don't know if Mr. Fitzgerald is the witness 17 through whom they intend to offer that. Certainly that was a 18 part of what he was saying when we were here in September 19 across the street. I just want to flag that as an issue 20 because we really haven't seen the full range of material that 21 it seems logical would have been generated by Mr. Fitzgerald in 22 the course of that activity. 23 MR. MORVILLO: Mr. Tigar is free to cross examine Mr. 24 Fitzgerald all about his documents tomorrow. 25 THE COURT: Okay. SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300 2238 46MSSAM8 Ruhnke - opening 1 All right. Anything else? 2 Please be here at 9:15 tomorrow morning. 3 (Trial adjourned to June 23, 2004 at 9:15 a.m.) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SOUTHERN DISTRICT REPORTERS, P.C. (212) 805-0300
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