Donate for the Cryptome archive of files from June 1996 to the present

22 June 2016. Add The Memory Hole 2.

13 October 2014. Thanks to A, update link to PC World archived article on hacking history.

12 October 2014. Updated.

18 December 2010. Updated.

4 September 2010. In progress.

Sensitive Information Security Sources and Breaches

In response to Wikileaks background inquiries Cryptome offers that there are hundreds of online and offline sources of sensitive information security breaches which preceded Wikileaks beginning about 120 years ago. This outline traces the conflict between technological capabilities for sensitive information breaches and control by law enforcement when technical countermeasures are insufficient -- a few examples among many others worldwide:

Socrates (c.400BC, Socratic Method):

Electromagnetic Spying Timeline (Mid-late 1800's):

Peter Zenger Press Freedom Trial (1735):

First Amendment of the US Constitution (1791):

Elijah Lovejoy (1830s):

Alexander Graham Bell (1876):

UK Official Secrets Act (1889):

Nikola Tesla (1894):

Guglielmo Marconi (1897):

John Dewey (1903):

Ida Tarbell (1904 The History of the Standard Oil Company):

US Espionage Act of 1917:

UK Communications-Electronics Security Group (1919):


American Civil Liberties Union (1920):

UKUSA Agreement (1940):

Nicky Hager (1996):

Mike Frost:

Duncan Campbell:

Federation of American Scientists (1945):

Secrecy News (FAS kid):

Global Security (FAS kid):

Les Temps modernes (1945:

National Security Act of 1947:

Central Intelligence Agency (1947):
Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment:

Central Intelligence: Origin and Evolution:

Philip Agee (1975; CIA kid):

CIA FOIA Documents:

National Security Agency (1952):

Winslow Peck (1972; NSA kid):

Anonymous AU (1973):

US Senate Church Report (1975):

NIST Information Technology Laboratory:

US Navy The Onion Router:

NSA FOIA Documents:

Wayne Madsen Report:

Simone de Beauvoir (1949, The Second Sex):

I. F. Stone's Weekly (1953-67):

Ralph Nader (1965):

Noam Chomsky (1960s):;

The Internet (1960s):

Usenet Newsgroups (1980s):

World Wide Web (1989):

Classified Networks: SIPRNet, .smil, .intel, .nsa, .fbi, et al

Hacking (1960s):
Cryptome mirror:


Chaos Computer Club (1985):


Freedom of Information Act (1966):

National Archives:

Classified National Security Information:

Presidential Libraries:

The Federal Register:

Library of Congress:

David Kahn (1967):

MapQuest (1967):

Urban Deadline (Cryptome precursor, 1968):

Seymour Hersh (1969):

FTP (ARPANET, 1971): 

Email (ARPANET, 1973):

Electronic Surveillance 1972-1995:

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein (1974):

Privacy Act (1974):

Personal Computer Invention (1976):

Whitfield Diffie (1977):

Martin Hellman (1977):

Ralph Merkle (1977):

Ronald Rivest:

Adi Shamir:

Len Adleman:

Philip Zimmerman PGP:


Progressive Magazine Publishes H-Bomb Design 1979:

Disk Operating System (1980):

James Bamford (1983):

Forum on Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems (1985):

Jeffrey T. Richelson (1985):

National Security Archive (1985):

Article 19 (1987):

Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (1989):

Public Interest Research (1989):


Google Watch:


Electronic Frontier Foundation (1990):

Gopher (1991):

Lynx (1992):

Cypherpunks Mail List (1992):

Crypto Rebels:
John Gilmore:

Eric Hughes, A Cypherpunk's Manifesto:

Timothy C. May:

Timothy C. May Cyphernomicon:

Matt Blaze Crypto:

Marc Briceno:

David Wagner:

Joel McNamara: also:

Joel McNamara Tempest Page:

Cryptography (Cypherpunks kid):

James Dalton Bell (Cypherpunks Kid): Federal Correctional Institution Sheridan also:

Carl Edward Johnson (Bell kid):

Cypherpunks Archives 1992-1998 (83MB)

Cryptome (originally 1996; Cypherpunks kid):

Cartome (2001):

Eyeball Series (2002):

UK Secret Bases:

Public Sources for Satellite and Aerial Photos and Maps:

Wikileaks (2006; Cryptome "spiritual godkid"):

Julian Assange on Cypherpunks 1995-2005:
Julian Assange Best of Security (1995):

Interesting-People Mail List (1993):

Electronic Privacy Information Center (1994):

Quintessenz (1994):

AltaVista (1995):

The Internet Archive (1996): (Generous links to online libraries)

UK Crypto Mail List (1996):

Ben Laurie (Wikileaks Advisor):

Ross Anderson:

Marcus Kuhn:

Adam Back Cypherspace:

GSM Crypto Cracks (1997-2010):

Terraserver USA (1998):

Bing Maps (2009):

Google (1998):

Google Earth:

Wikipedia (2001):

Advanced Encryption Standard (2001):

USA PATRIOT Act (2001):

NSA warrant-less surveillance (2001):

Total Information Awareness (2002):

Daniel Bernstein:

Bruce Schneier:

Cryptography Research:

Ciphers by Ritter: (Generous links)

Cryptography Org: (Generous links)



The Memory Hole: [Temporarily down]

The Memory Hole 2 returns:

Government Attic (2007; longtime source of FOI to others):

ProPublica (June 2008):

Public Intelligence:

Public Intelligence Blog: (Handy list of comsec and spy sites)

History Anarchy Blog:




The Intercept:

The Memory Hole 2: