9 September 2008. A Zipped PDF of the full original NSTISSAM TEMPEST/1-92:
31 October 1999: Link to final part of transcription, Appendixes B-M:
26 October 1999: Link to the third part transcription of NSTISSAM TEMPEST/1-92,
25 October 1999
Source: Hardcopy from the National Security Agency received October 21, 1999.
Released in response to an FOIA request dated
May 18, 1998. Of twenty-two TEMPEST-related documents requested, only parts
of two were released. NSA wrote that most
remain classified as SECRET and unreleasable. An
appeal for additional releases has been filed.
This a second part of transcription of a 172-page document in which classified
sections, about half of the volume, have been redacted (indicated by xxxxxxxx).
Balance of transcription is underway and will be offered here as completed.
First part of transcription, Appendix A:
Third part, Sections 6-12:
Fourth part, Distribution List:
The other release, NSA/CSS Regulation 90-6, Technical Security Program,
a 12-page document:
Classification symbols: (U) = unclassified, (C) = classified, FOUO = for
official use only. Overstrikes in the original.
For comprehensive TEMPEST stuff (non-secret, that is) see The Complete,
Unofficial TEMPEST Information Page:
15 December 1992
LABORATORY TEST REQUIREMENTS
CLASSIFIED BY DIRNSA (NATIONAL MANAGER, NSTISS)
DECLASSIFY ON: ORIGINATING AGENCY'S
15 December 1992
1. (U) National Security Telecommunications and
Information Systems Security Advisory Memorandum (NSTISSAM)
TEMPEST/1-92, "Compromising Emanations Laboratory Test
Requirements, Electromagnetics" specifies test procedures for
identifying the conducted and electromagnetic radiation
emanations characteristics of individual equipment in a
laboratory environment. This NSTISSAM supersedes NSTISSAM
TEMPEST/l-91, dated 21 March 1991.
2. (U) This document contains communications security
material. Access by contractor personnel is restricted to U.S.
citizens holding final U.S. Government clearances. This
document is not releasable to the Defense Technical Information
Center per DoD Instruction 5100.38.
3. (U) Representatives of the National Security
Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee
(NSTISSC) may obtain additional copies of this advisory
National Security Telecommunications and
Information Systems Security Committee
National Security Agency
Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6000
4. (U) U.S. Government contractors are to contact their
appropriate government agency or Contracting Officer
Representative regarding distribution of this document.
J. M. McCONNELL
Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK
[Pages i to vii]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
2.1.1 Specifications - Military
2.2 Comments and Recommendations
3. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
4. BASIC REQUIREMENT
4.1 Requirement and Definition of Compromising Emanations
4.2 Requirement Levels
4.3 Use of Alternative Testing Approaches
5. GENERAL APPROACH
5.2 Emanations Classification and Identification
5.3 Extension of Specific Requirements
5.4 RED Signaling Rate Determination
5.6 Tunable and Non-tunable Detection Systems
5.7 EUT Operation During Testing
5.8 Test Environment
5.8.1 Test Chamber
5.8.2 Ground Plane
5.8.3 Ambient Signal Control, Test Setup
5.9 Emanations Search and Measurement
5.10 Signal Classes and Signal/Noise Measurements
5.10.1 Signal Classes/Denormalizing Factors
5.10.2 Signal/Noise Measurements
5.11 Summary of Options
6 DOCUMENTATION AND CERTIFICATION
6.2 Test Plan Requirements/Contents
6.3 Data Recording
6.3.1 Correlated Emanations
6.3.2 Peak Emanations
6.3.3 Number of Measurements
6.3.4 Data Sheets
6.3.5 Emanation Recordings
6.3.6 Graphs of Test Results
6.3.7 Emanation Designators
6.4 Test Instrumentation Certification Report
6.5 Facility Certification Requirements
6.6 Test Setup Ambient Certification
6.7 Test Report
6.8 Abbreviated Documentation and Certification Requirements
6.8.1 Test Plan/Report Requirements and Contents
6.8.2 Data Recording
7. INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
7.2 Detection Systems: General Requirements
7.3 Detection System Sensitivity (DSS) Measurements, General
7.3.2 DSS Measurements, Method A: Tunable Detection System Without Demodulator
and Non-tunable Detection System
7.3.3 DSS Measurements, Method B: Tunable Detection System With Demodulator
7.3.4 DSS Measurements, Method C: Tunable Detection System With Demodulator
7.3.5 DSS Measurements, Optional Method D (IG): Tunable Detection Systems
Without Demodulator and Non-tunable Detection System
7.4 6 dB and Impulse Bandwidth Requirements, Tunable and Non-tunable Detection
7.5 Signal Measurement Standards
7.5.1 Impulse Generators
7.5.2 Sine Wave Generators
7.6 Calibration Requirements and Operational Check
8 TEST ENVIRONMENT
8.2 Test Chamber
8.3 Test Configuration
8.3.1 Equipment: Under Test Grounding Configuration
8.3.2 EUT Ground Plane
8.3.3 Test Detection System
8.3.4 EUT Exercising Equipment
8.4 Test Setup Ambient Signal Control
9. EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST OPERATION
9.1.1 EUT Signaling Rate, Digital Signals
9.1.2 EUT Signaling Rate, Analog Signals
9.1.3 For Tunable Analog Voice Tests
9.1.4 For Non-Tunable Analog Voice Tests
9.2 Test Pattern
10. EMANATIONS SEARCH
10.2 RED Signal Identification/Selection and General Search Requirements
10.2.2 RED Signal Type and Signal Source, Definition of
10.2.3 RED Signal Identification/Selection
10.2.4 Test Categories/Criteria
10.2.5 Procedure 1: Search for Correlated Emanations
10.2.6 Procedure 2: Search for Peak EUT Emanations
10.2.7 Search Optimization
10.3 Test Media Examinations
10.3.1 Electromagnetic Radiation
10.4.3 Non-tunable Frequency Coverage and Bandpass Requirements
11. EMANATIONS MEASUREMENTS
11.3 Measurement Accuracy
11.4 Emanations Measurement Procedures
11.4.1 Correlated and Peak EUT Emanations
11.4.2 General Measurement Methods
11.4.3 Application of Measurement Methods
11.5 Signal and Noise Measurements
11.5.2 Procedure 1: Statistical Measurements
11.5.3 Procedure 2: Visual "A-Scope" Measurements
11.5.4 Relating Statistical and Visual Measurements
12.2 Electromagnetic Radiation Limits
12.2.1 Electric Radiation Limits
12.2.2 Magnetic Radiation Limits
12.3 BLACK Line Limits
12.3.1 BLACK Line Conduction Limits
12.4 RED Line Limits
A. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPROMISING EMANATIONS
A.4 Classification Marking
A.5 Foreign Release
A.6 Specific Guidelines
A.7 TEMPEST Classification Chart Outline
A.8 TEMPEST Classification Chart
[For Appendixes B-M see:
B. DESCRIPTION OF CORRELATED SIGNALS
C. TEST GUIDELINES FOR PARALLEL INFORMATION TRANSFER EQUIPMENT
C.2 Parallel Transfer Example
C.3 Types of Parallel Information Transfer
C.3.1 Return-to-Zero Signals
C.3.2 Nonreturn-to-Zero Signals
C.3.3 Polygraphic and Multiplexed Signals
C.4 Test Patterns
C.4.1 Type A Test Patterns
C.4.2 Type B Test Patterns
C.4.3 Type C Test Patterns
C.5 Emanation Measurement Procedures
C.6 Evaluation of Results
C.6.1 Bit Density
C.6.2 The Effect of Parity Check Bits
C.7 Effect of Multiple Signals
D. ALPHANUMERIC CRT DISPLAYS
D.3 Examples of Scanning and Character Generation Methods
D.3.2 Character Generation
D.4 Examples of Defining Rd
D.4.1 Standard TV Display -- Continuous Scan
D.4.2 Dot Matrix -- Continuous Scan
D.4.3 Dot Matrix -- Modified Continuous Scan
D.4.4 Stroke or Vector Generation
D.5 Special Test Requirements
D.5.1 Alphanumeric CRT Displays
D.5.2 Bit Mapped Displays
E. AUTOMATED TESTING SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
E.1.2 [sic] Supplementary Manual Test
E.1.3 General Approach
E.1.4 System Certification Philosophy
E.1.5 Alternative Approaches
E.2 Automated Test Procedures
E.2.2 Tuning Scheme
E.2.3 Measurement Accuracy
E.2.4 Digital Voltmeter
E.2.5 Measurement Gate Time
E.2.6 Substitution Sources
E.3 Advance Certification Testing Requirements
E.3.1 Rd-Type Signal Certification Tests
E.3.2 Rd-Type Signal Certification Tests
E.4 Periodic Calibration Verification Requirements
E.4.1 Internal Attentuator Calibration Verification
E.4.2 Internal Source Verification
E.5 Scan Accuracy Verification Requirement
E.6 Automated Detection Systems Using A Spectrum Analyzer
E.6.2 Automated Testing Procedures Using A Spectrum Analyzer
E.6.3 Advance Certification Testing Requirements
E.6.4 Rt-Type Signal Certification Tests
E.7 Critical Feature List Requirements
E.7.1 Critical Features List
E.8 Documentation Requirements
E.8.1 Test Instrument Certification
E.8.2 Test Plan Additions
E.8.3 Data Collection and Reporting
F. DETECTION SYSTEM BANDWIDTH MEASUREMENT
F.2 6 dB Bandwidth Measurements: Tunable Heterodyne Detection System With
F.2.1 Signal Generator Requirements
F.2.2 Measurement Procedure
F.3 6 dB Bandwidth Measurements: Tunable Heterodyne or Tunable Non-Heterodyne
Detection System Without Demodulator
F.4 6 dB Bandwidth Measurements: Non-tunable Detection Systems
F.5 Impulse Bandwidth Measurements (IBW): Tunable Heterodyne Detection System
F.6 Impulse Bandwidth. Measurements: Tunable Heterodyne or Tunable Non-Heterodyne
Detection System Without Demodulator
F.7 Impulse Bandwidth Measurements: Non-tunable Detection Systems
G. TABLES AND FIGURES
H. LEVEL I LIMITS
I. LEVEL II LIMITS
J. LEVEL III LIMITS . . .
K. IMPULSE GENERATOR CALIBRATION
L. TEMPEST TEST PLAN OUTLINE
M. TEMPEST PROFILE
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
5-1 Sequence of Emanations Identification, Manual Testing
5-2 Assumed Transition Time Based on Pulse Width Signaling Rate (Maximum)
8-1 Standard Test Configuration
10-1 Typical Test Instrumentation for ER Tests
10-2 Required Minimum Antenna Distances From Metal Surfaces and Objects Other
Than the EUT
10-3 Typical Test Instrumentation for MR Tests
10-4 Orientation of MR Pickup Loop
10-5 Typical Test Instrumentation for Line Conduction Tests (excluding
10-6 Typical Test Instrumentation for PLC Tests
11-1 Examples of Signals to be Measured, Method 1
11-2 Examples of Signals to be Measured, Method 2
11-3 Examples of Signals to be Measured, Method 3
11-4 Positive/Negative Signal Examples
11-5 Examples of Noise Measurement Window, W
11-6 Signal/Noise Measurements: Serial Signal Example
11-7 Small Signal-to-Noise Ratios, Example
B-1 Examples of Correlated Emanations, A-Scope Display
B-2 Examples of Correlated Emanations, A-Scope Display
B-3 Examples of Correlated Emanations, A-Scope Display
B-4 Examples of Correlated Emanations, A-Scope Display
B-5 Examples of Correlated Emanations, Raster Display
B-6 Examples of Correlated Emanations, Raster Display
B-7 Examples of Correlated Emanations, Raster Display
B-8 Examples of Correlated Emanations, Raster Display
C-1 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Parallel Transfer of Data (U)"]
C-2 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Bit-Density Emanation Examples
C-3 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Fingerprint Emanation Examples
D-1 Video Scan -- Continuous
D-2 Video Scan - Modified Continuous
D-3 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Standard TV Display: Character 'B'
D-4 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Dot Matrix (U)"]
D-5 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Stroke or Vector Generation: character
D-6 Example of TV Display
D-7 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Example of Dot Matrix-Continuous
D-8 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Example of Dot Matrix-Modified Scan
D-9 Example of Stroke Generation Display
G-1 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Assumed Transition Time Based on
Pulse Width Signaling Rate (Maximum) (U)"]
G-2 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Bounds of Tunable Overall Detection
System Bandwidth (U)"]
G-3 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Maximum Permissible Tunable Starting
Test Frequency (U)"]
G-4 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Typical Test Instrumentation for
ER Tests (U)"]
G-5 Required Minimum Antenna Distances from Metal Surfaces and Objects Other
Than the EUT
G-6 Typical Test Instrumentation for MR Tests
G-7 Orientation of MR Pickup Loop
G-8 Typical Test Instrumentation for Line Conduction Tests (excluding powerlines)
H-1 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Tunable ER Limits (U) LEVEL I"]
H-2 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Tunable MR Limits (U) LEVEL I"]
H-3 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "Tunable BLACK Line Conduction Limits
(U) LEVEL I"]
L-1 Example of Test Plan Time-Sequence RED Signal Flow Diagram, Simplified
LIST OF TABLES
B-1 xxxxxxxxxx [From body of paper: "ILLUSTRATION OF CORRELATED EMANATIONS
L-1 Example of Test Matrix
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK
SECTION 1 -- PURPOSE AND SCOPE
1.1. (U) Purpose. -- This document specifies test procedures for
identifying the conducted emanation and electromagnetic radiation emanation
characteristics of individual equipment in a laboratory environment.
1.1. l (U) The emanation limits constitute a set of reference curves which
are intended for use:
a. (U) As a guide for determining a contractual measure for acceptability,
or as a performance objective in preparing specifications for newly developed
b. (U) As a standard for comparing the TEMPEST profiles of different equipment.
1.1.2 (U) Equipment meeting the Level I limits of this document provide an
acceptably degree of conducted and radiated TEMPEST security at the equipment
level. Those complying with the Level II and Level III limits of this document
provide an acceptable degree of radiated TEMPEST security at the equipment
level when installed in an appropriate protected environment. Measurements
of electromagnetic radiated emanations are made at a standard measurement
point of one meter from the equipment under test (EUT). However, this does
not imply that equipment meeting the requirements of this document does not
radiate compromising emanations beyond one meter. Specific installation and
environmental considerations may have a significant effect on TEMPEST security
when judged at the system or field-site level. Such considerations are beyond
the scope of this document.
1.1.3 (U) Test instrumentation, used to determine whether equipment meets
the limits, is generally available.
1.1.4 (U) Throughout this document, various options are presented which the
sponsoring organization may exercise. Unexercised options shall not apply.
These options are summarized in Paragraph 5.11.
1.2. (U) Scope. -- This document is applicable to electronic, electrical,
and electromechanical equipment which generates, processes, or transfers
classified information or sensitive information as set forth in 10 U.S.C.
Section 7315 (Warner Amendment) internally or at external interfaces in either
digital or analog form. This document does not apply to facilities.
1.2.1 (U) [Five lines redacted.]
(C) The maximum digital data signaling rates and the
maximum analog data bandwidth at which this document applies are:
1.2.3 (U) This document specifies three levels of TEMPEST compliance.
1.2.4 (U) This document is intended for use by U.S. Government departments
and agencies, and their authorized contractors. This document is applicable
to equipment in the developmental stage, during and subsequent to production,
and after any modification. This document is not intended for use in
qualification testing of individual component parts of a complete equipment
(e.g., a power supply, a resistor, etc.), since such a test is meaningless
from a TEMPEST standpoint.
SECTION 2 -- REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
2.1. (U) Documents. -- The following listed documents supplement the
information included in this document. U.S. Government personnel may request
copies through their NSTISS representative. Contractors should contact their
contracting officer. Complete or essentially complete lists of TEMPEST documents
2.1.1 (U) Specifications.-Military.
(U) MIL-STD-45662, Calibration System Requirements (UNCLASSIFIED)
2.1. (U) General.
NACSIM 5000 -- TEMPEST Fundamentals (title UNCLASSIFIED; document CONFIDENTIAL).
NSTISSAM TEMPEST/2-91 -- Compromising Emanations Analysis Handbook (title
UNCLASSIFIED; document CONFIDENTIAL).
NACSEM 5108 -- Receiver and Amplifier Characteristics Measurement Procedures
(title UNCLASSIFIED; document FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY).
NACSIM 5203 -- Guidelines for Facility Design and RED/BLACK Installation
(title UNCLASSIFIED; document CONFIDENTIAL).
NACSEM 5904 -- Shielded Enclosures (title UNCLASSIFIED; document CONFIDENTIAL).
NCSC 3 -- TEMPEST Glossary (title UNCLASSIFIED; document SECRET).
NTISSI 4002 -- Classification Guide for COMSEC Information (title UNCLASSIFIED;
NACSEM 5009 -- Technical Rational: Basis for Electromagnetic Compromising
Emanations limits (title UNCLASSIFIED; document CONFIDENTIAL).
2.2. (U) Comments and Recommendations. -- Revisions to this document
will be made as appropriate. Comments. corrections, and recommendations on
its contents are encouraged. U.S. Government organizations should submit
their comments through their respective department or agency authority to:
Director, National Security Agency
Fort George G. Meade, Maryland 90755-6000
Contractors should submit their comments regarding this standard to their
A comment sheet is provided in the back of this document for this purpose.
When submitting comments, it is suggested that this form be reproduced or
that a format similar to that on the form be used.
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK
[Pages 3-1 to 3-5]
SECTION 3 -- DEFINITIONS AND
3.1. (U) Definitions. -- The definitions of terms given in this glossary
are specifically for use in this document. Many TEMPEST-related terms used
in this document are not included in this glossary, but can be found in NACSIM
5000 Appendix A and NCSC 3, TEMPEST Glossary.
3.1.1 (U) Automated Detection System. -- An automated TEMPEST detection system
must detect and record EUT emanation levels, and may also identify those
emanations which are correlated to RED signals The system includes the detection
system, internal/external controller, and calibration source(s). The sensitivity,
bandwidth, and tuning range of automated systems must meet the specified
requirements for manual systems.
3.1.2 (U) Bit Density. -- The total number of "1's" in the particular byte
(C) [Four lines redacted.]
3.1.4 (U) Bit Rate. -- A general term used to express the data transfer rate
of binary digital signals. For purposes of this document, it is defined as
being numerically equivalent to the reciprocal of the duration in seconds
of the shortest unit interval (the interval between the beginning of adjacent
bits). The units are bits per second (b/s) for serial transfer, parallel
information units per second (PIU) for parallel transfer. For telegraphic
signal codes, the term "baud'' is synonymous with "bits per second."
3.1.5 (U) Bus. -- A group of wires used for transferring parallel data one
byte or one word at a time.
3.1.6 (U) Byte. -- A group of adjacent binary digits associated with one
character or unit of information operated upon as a unit and usually shorter
than a word usually connotes a group of eight bits where the digits are operated
upon simultaneously as a unit. (A byte usually connotes a group of eight
3.1.7 (U) Character Time. -- Period of a data character transfer cycle. Character
time is the reciprocal of the repetition rate of the data characters.
3.1.8 (U) [Three lines redacted.]
3.1.9 (U) Conversion Factor. -- A general term that refers to adjustments
which must be made to the results of a physical measurement to express the
results in desired units. A conversion factor always involves a change of
units. Some specific conversion factors are: antenna factor
(dBµV to dBµV/m or dBµV to
dBµA); current probe factor (dBµV to
dBµA); and bandwidth conversion factor (dBµV/kHz
3.1.10 (U) Correction Factor. -- A general term that refers to adjustments
which must be made to the results of a physical measurement to express the
results in an accurate relation to a desired reference. A correction factor
accounts for gains or losses in the measuring system and does not involve
a change of units. Some specific correction factors are: cable losses, mismatch
losses, and attenuator losses.
3.1.11 (U) Demodulator. -- A device that operates on a modulated carrier
wave in such a way that the wave with which the carrier was originally modulated
3.1.12 (U) Detection System. -- The equipment used in performing a TEMPEST
test which includes transducers, detectors, and display devices. Recording
devices are also included if they are the only means of displaying the emanations
during the test.
3.1.13 (U) Detection System Sensitivity (DSS). -- The input signal level
(in dBµV rms, dBµV/m rms or dBµA/m rms)
which produces a zero dB peak signal to rms noise voltage ratio at the detection
(C) [Four lines redacted.]
3.1.15 (U) Gate Time. -- The hardware-selected time period during which the
detection system output level is sampled for a peak by the digital voltmeter.
3.1.16 (U) Ground Plane. -- A metal sheet or plate used for circuit returns
and a common reference point for electrical signal potentials.
3.1.17 (U) Impulse Bandwidth. -- The effective bandwidth of a device or detection
system, which when multiplied by the impulse single-sided spectral density
(volts/Hz) and mid-band gain of the device or detection system, yields the
peak magnitude (volts) of the time domain response of the device or detection
system to an impulse.
3.1.18 (U) Impulse Strength. -- A measure of the amplitude-density spectrum
of an impulse. expressed in amplitude per unit bandwidth. Note: In
this document, impulse strength is measured in units of microvolts per MHz
(equivalent rms sine wave). This means that impulse strength is .707 times
the magnitude of the single-sided voltage density spectrum, which is also
specified in microvolts per MHz (peak).
3.1.19 (U) Instantaneous Dynamic Range (IDR). -- Range of signal levels which
can be measured to the required accuracy without changing detection system
amplifier gains or RF attenuation. This is a function of bandwidth frequency,
and gate time.
3.1.20 (U) Low Byte, High Byte. -- Terms used to distinguish between two
bytes which have been combined to form a word. Low bytes (and two-byte words)
are often stored at even numbered memory locations (0, 2, 4, . . .) and high
bytes are often stored at odd numbered memory locations (1, 3, 5, . . .).
3.1.21 (U) Maximum Measurable Signal (MMS). -- Largest signal level which
can be measured to the required measurement accuracy. This is peak measurement
sensitivity plus IDR plus all available attenuation.
3.1.22 (U) Measurement Window. -- The measurement time required to achieve
measurement accuracy (as refers to automated detection systems).
3.1.23 (U) Microvolts Per Megahertz. -- A unit of measurement for impulsive
signals. The impulsive signal level in microvolts per megahertz
(µV/MHz) rms is equal to the rms sine wave microvolts (unmodulated,
applied to the input of the measuring circuit at its center frequency and
resulting in a peak response in the circuit equal to that produced by the
signal being measured) divided by the impulse bandwidth, in megahertz, of
the measuring circuit. A more commonly used unit of impulsive signal measurements
is decibels above one microvolt per megahertz (dBµV/MHz (equivalent
rms sine wave)).
3.1.24 (U) Noise Floor. -- Measurement of the noise which appears at the
detection system digital voltmeter (DVM) with no signal input. Noise floor
is the lowest level that can be displayed by the detection system and may
be lower than peak measurement sensitivity.
3.1.25 (U) Nonreturn-to-Zero (NRZ). -- A method of transferring information
in which the signal level representing a binary 1 is held for as many units
of time as there are consecutive "1's."
3.1.26 (U) Overall Detection System Bandwidth. -- The 6 dB bandwidth of the
detection system. The overall bandwidth includes the combined influence of
all the bandwidth-determining circuits between the detection system input
and output used.
3.1.27 (U) Overall System Bandwidth. -- The effective 6 dB bandwidth of the
automated detection system measured at the DVM output. This bandwidth is
the smallest of the following: DVM bandwidth, video bandwidth, and predetection
3.1.28 (U) Parity Bit. -- The bit whose value is determined by the number
of "1's" in the associated group of bits, such that the total number of "1's"
is always odd (odd parity) or always even (even parity). The parity bit is
usually located in the most-significant-bit (MSB) position.
3.1.29 (U) Peak Measurement Sensitivity (PMS). -- Lowest signal level which
can be measured to the required measurement accuracy. This is a function
of bandwidth, frequency, and gate time. For automated testing, this replaces
3.1.30 (U) Plain Text. -- Intelligible text or signals which have meaning
and which can be read or acted upon without the application of any decryption.
3.1.31 (U) [Four lines redacted.]
3.1.32 (U) Receiver Band. -- Range of frequencies in which the signal path
remains constant through the detection system. The mechanical RF attenuators
are not included in this definition.
3.1.33 (U) RED Analog Signaling Rate (Rd). -- The signaling rate for RED
analog signals is equal to the required bandwidth of the signal conveying
the national security information and is expressed in hertz.
3.1.34 (U) [Two lines redacted.]
18.104.22.168 (U) [Four lines redacted.]
22.214.171.124 (U) [Three lines redacted.]
3.1.35 (U) RED Signal Source. -- Any circuit or circuit element, through
which a RED signal is fed, which causes a change in signal current with respect
to time (di/dt).
3.1.36 (U) RED Signal Type. -- The characterization of a RED signal by the
following features: code, format, parity, whether synchronous or asynchronous,
whether serial or parallel, whether repetitive or nonrepetitive, the number
of bytes simultaneously processed, and whether baseband or a form of modulation
3.1.37 (U) Return-to-Zero (RZ). -- A method of transferring information in
which a 1 is represented by a short pulse, so that the signal returns to
zero between consecutive "1's."
3.1.38 (U) Scan. -- A frequency sweep measurement process consisting of one
or more scan segments performed sequentially.
3.1.39 (U) Scan Segment. -- Procedure for tuning a detection system between
two frequencies with fixed bandwidth and gate time while recording amplitude
3.1.40 (U) Settling Time. -- Period of time required for the detection system
to stabilize following a change of the signal path and period of time required
for an external signal source to stabilize following a change. Settling times
are typically associated with changes to the following system parameters:
frequency, receiver band, bandwidth, attenuator, RF/IF/video gain, input
port, and frequency and level of the calibration source.
3.1.41 (U) Shape Factor. -- The ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 6 dB
bandwidth of the gain versus frequency response of a tunable detection system.
3.1.42 (U) TEMPEST Limited Ambient Emanations. -- Ambient emanations at each
test frequency below which compromising emanations, if present, could not
be detected. Such ambient emanations are often below the peak ambient signals
found at the test frequency.
3.1.43 (U) Transition Density (total). -- The number of transitions from
1 to 0 plus the number of transitions from 0 to 1 which occur between consecutive
bytes or words when the transfer occurs in an NRZ parallel format.
(C) [Four lines redacted.]
3.1.45 (U) Wobbulate. -- A term used to describe the continual shifting of
a cw tone from one frequency to another either in a discrete step or by slewing
between the two frequency extremes.
3.1.46 (U) Word. -- A group of bytes, stored or transferred together as a
3.2. (U) Abbreviations
(U) CORR E
- alternating current
- average depth of correct symbol
- automatic gain control
- amplitude modulation or amplitude modulated (Signal)
- beat frequency oscillator
- black line conduction
- bits per second
- calculated controlled space
- compromising emanations
- correlated emanations
- cathode-ray oscilloscope
- cathode-ray tube
- controlled space
- continuous wave
- direct current
- data related emanations
- detection system noise
- detection system sensitivity
- electromagnetic interference
- electromagnetic radiation
- environmental ambient
- electrical radiation
- equipment under test
- equipment under test ambient
- center frequency (synonymous with tuned frequency
when referring to tunable devices)
- fortuitous conduction
- frequency modulation or frequency modulated (signal)
- giga-prefix for 109 multiplier
- impulse bandwidth
- impulsive dynamic response
- intermediate frequency
- impulse generator
- kilo-prefix for 103 multiplier
- line conduction
- mega-prefix for 106 multiplier
- meter (linear measurement) or milli-prefix for 10-3 multiplier
- micro-prefix for 10-6
- multiplier millimeter
- maximum measurable signal
- magnetic radiation
- nano-prefix for 10-9 multiplier
- National TEMPEST Information Center
- other emanations
- pico-prefix for 10-12 multiplier
- parallel information unit per second
- powerline impedance stabilization network
- peak measurement sensitivity
- RED analog signaling rate or RED pulse width signaling
rate or RED digital signaling rate
- recommended controlled space
- radio frequency
- RED line conduction
- RED transition time signaling rate
- signal-to-noise ratio
- tesla (1 weber/m2)
- TEMPEST Endorsement Program
- transition time
- voltage standing wave ratio
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4.1. (U) Requirement and Definition of Compromising Emanations.
4.1.1 (U) Compromising emanations are unintentional intelligence-bearing
signals which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose the national security
information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by any
4.1.2 (U) Equipment and systems to which the requirements of this document
are levied shall not emit compromising emanations that exceed the applicable
limits specified herein.
(C) Requirement Levels. -- [Four lines
4.3. (U) Use of Alternative Testing Approaches. -- The testing approaches
and procedures specified in this document are derived from the best body
of pure technical knowledge on TEMPEST testing known to the U.S. Government.
Added to this are several moderating factors such as time to perform testing,
cost of testing and availability of test instrumentation. Outside the scope
of this document there may be other acceptable TEMPEST testing procedures
that satisfy the criterion of an equipment under test meeting these limits.
The sponsoring organization may approve alternative TEMPEST testing procedures
not contained in this document, provided sufficient evidence is available
to show that the limits defined in Chapter 12 can be met. Similarly, if a
testing organization finds that the procedures defined in their TEMPEST testing
plan are inadequate to perform a satisfactory TEMPEST test, they are obligated
to provide an addendum to the test plan as part of the TEMPEST test report,
detailing any changes required to satisfactorily perform the tests. This
modification can entail a change in test category, bandwidth selection, limits.
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[Pages 5-1 to 5-6]
SECTION 5 -- GENERAL APPROACH
5.1. (U) Introduction. -- This section presents general information,
test requirements, and procedures for conducting a TEMPEST evaluation of
an equipment, referred to herein as the equipment under test (EUT). Specific
procedures and test requirements are presented in Chapters 7 through 12 and
in the Appendices.
5.2. (U) Emanations Classification and Identification. -- Figure 5-1
illustrates the classification and identification of the various types of
Correlatable (CORR E)
1. Test setup ambient emanations shall not exceed limits applicable
to tests of the EUT (except low frequency powerline noise, see 8.4).
2. The government reserves the right to make the final decision as
to whether above-limit emanations have been properly identified.
3. Emanation designators (ENVA, etc.) are listed in paragraph
Figure 5-1. -- Sequence of Emanations Identification, Manual Testing (U)
5.3. (U) Extension of Specified Requirements. -- If, in the course
of testing or subsequent evaluation or analysis, a phenomenon or emanation
is encountered which lies outside the specified requirements of this document,
and this phenomenon or emanation could conceivably compromise the national
security information being generated, processed, or transferred by the EUT,
the tester shall be responsible for bringing this discovery to the attention
of the sponsoring organization.
5.4. (U) RED Signaling Rate Determination.
5.4.1 (U) [Four lines redacted.]
5.4.2 (U) [Three lines redacted.]
126.96.36.199 (U) [Three lines redacted.]
188.8.131.52 (U) [Three lines redacted.]
(C) [Eight lines redacted.]
(C) [Seven lines redacted.]
[Full-page figure redacted.]
Figure 5-2. -- [Figure title redacted.]
(C) [Three lines redacted.]
(C) [Six lines redacted.]
(C) [Four lines redacted.]
5.6. (U) Tunable and Non-Tunable Detection Systems. -- Searches for
emanations correlative to RED digital and RED analog signals shall be made
using appropriate tunable and non-tunable detection systems. Refer to Chapter
7 for instrumentation requirements.
5.7. (U) EUT Operation During Testing. -- During TEMPEST testing,
exercise the EUT in all of its operational modes. All circuits which are
active during a given mode of operation, shall be in operation when that
mode is tested. As required by the EUT specification, adjust controls for
optimum design performance. Unless otherwise specified by the sponsoring
organization, interface lines shall be terminated in their normal load impedances
(may be simulated if actual termination device is not required for the tests).
Use normal interface signaling voltages and frequencies (i.e., waveforms).
The EUT shall be operated at the signaling rates used to determine test category
and instrumentation requirements. All doors, panels, etc. shall be opened
or closed, as in normal operating condition. Refer to Chapter 9 for details.
5.8. (U) Test Environment.
5.8.1 (U) Test Chamber. -- Perform all tests in a test environment wherein
all ambient emanations are below the specified TEMPEST limit; except for
powerline ambient emanations as discussed in Paragraph 8.4. This normally
requires a shielded enclosure with the test instrumentation located outside
the test environment.
5.8.2 (U) Ground Plane. -- The shielded enclosures shall contain a solid
copper or brass plate for use as a ground plane. Bond one side to the shielded
5.8.3 (U) Ambient Signal Control, Test Setup. -- Prior to commencement of
formal TEMPEST testing of the EUT, evaluate the ambient emanations originating
from the test setup with only the EUT turned off. Reduce signals above the
appropriate TEMPEST limits to a level equal to, or below, the limits except
for powerline conducted ambients as discussed in Paragraph 8.4.
(C) Emanations Search and Measurement. -- [Two
lines redacted.] Tests may be made for either peak or correlated EUT
emanations. [Four lines redacted.] Emanation measurement procedures
shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter 11.
(C) Signal Classes and Signal/Noise Measurements.
(C) Signal Classes/Denormalizing Factors. --
5.10.2 (U) Signal/Noise Measurements. -- To provide data for analysis
of correlated emanations, signal and noise measurements must be accomplished
during the course of testing. Procedures for performing signal and noise
measurements are given in Paragraph 11.5.
5.11. (U) Summary of Options. -- The following list is a summary of
the various options which may be exercised by the sponsoring organization
to modify the requirements stated in this document. Only those options exercised
shall apply; otherwise, the requirements shall remain as stated herein. The
a. (U) If other than three years, the length of time detection system and
facility certification approvals are valid (see Paragraphs 6.4 and 6.5).
b. (U) If correlated emanations, when measured below the limit, are to be
analyzed (see Paragraph 6.3).
c. (U) If footnote 2 on Table G-4 shall apply. This reduces the maximum test
frequencies from those specified in the table.
d (U) If identification is required of peak emanations measured below the
limit (see Paragraph 6.3.2).
e. (U) If submission of test setup ambient certification report is required
prior to testing (see Paragraph 6.6).
f. (U) If data sheets are required in test reports (see Paragraph 6.7).
g. (U) If 6 dB bandwidth measurements are required (see Paragraph 7.4).
h. (U) If impulse bandwidth measurements are required (see Paragraph 7.4).
(U) If shape factor measurements are required (see Paragraph 7.4).
y. (U) If any test media are to be completely eliminated from testing
requirernents (see Paragraph 10.3).
k. (U) If analysis performed by the testing organization is not required
(see Paragraph 10.2.5).
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