Field Manual 3-34.331 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING 16 January 2001

TOC Chap1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 AppA AppB AppC AppD Gl Bib


Chapter 11

Reports, Briefings, and Operation Orders

All survey and survey-support activities must be documented. Additionally, unit commanders or visiting dignitaries have to be informed about the status of the project. The most common means of accomplishing these two tasks are reports and briefings. This chapter gives general guidance and recommended formats for these reports and briefings and for operation orders (OPORDs). This information is not intended to replace unit SOPs or official correspondence-preparation guidance but rather to supplement them and provide for a standardized procedure and format. Section III of this chapter includes a sample survey SOP and supporting annexes.


11-1. All reports should be treated as for official use only (FOUO) and safeguarded accordingly. In many instances, reports will be classified and appropriate safeguard measures are mandatory. All activities and events of a survey should be documented in a report. Reports can take many forms, and their primary uses are to


11-2. All reports may not address each subject, but they will serve at least one of the above functions. A well-planned survey project can be broken down into phases. Each phase will require at least one report. These phases include

11-3. In some situations, it may be convenient and practical to combine one or more of these phases and to prepare a consolidated report. Reports are prepared to provide information and should not be written just to fulfill a requirement.


11-4. The initial site visitation is usually a preliminary visit that is used to gather general information. The information collected is generally used for logistical purposes. This does not mean that technical information is not gathered, but gathering information is not necessarily the primary function of the visit. The initial site visitation will normally be conducted by the survey-section leader and the project's noncommissioned officer (NCO). Depending on the nature of the project, the survey-platoon leader may also be included. In all cases, an ISVT report is required. A battalion or company SOP will usually designate the individual responsible for completing the report as well as the exact format to be used. Annex A of the sample survey SOP shows the format for an ISVT report. Any information that could be used at a later date should be included.

11-5. The report should be broken down into readily identifiable numbered and titled paragraphs as follows:

Paragraph 1. References. The project directive or technical OPORD (TECHOPORD) number.

Paragraph 2. Personnel. The name, rank, and telephone number of all personnel involved in the recon.

Paragraph 3. Key Personnel Contacts. The name, rank or position title, address, and telephone number of all key individuals contacted while conducting the visit. This paragraph is often combined with paragraph 2.

Paragraph 4. Objective. The objective of the ISVT.

Paragraph 5. Discussion. A discussion of exactly what occurred and what conversations took place (include only the most extensive). This paragraph will contain subparagraphs concerning logistical and technical information. All arrangements for lodging, food, medical, and other support must be listed and should include specific details. Any technical information should be listed; however, if extensive technical details are available, it may be advisable to include them in an appendix to the basic report. The key to the discussion paragraph is to list all information that is available. The report may be the only source of information for later activities on the project.

Paragraph 6. Recommendations. The specific recommendations for the conduct of the next phase of the project. These recommendations should include the number of personnel, the start date, and the tasks to be accomplished.

Paragraph 7. Funding. The fund citation. It may also specify the funds expended on the ISVT and any information concerning funding of the next phase of the project.

Paragraph 8. Work Hours. The total number of work hours broken down by rank. This information can be used for projecting the time required on similar future projects.

Paragraph 9. Equipment. The type of vehicles; the vehicles' identification numbers; the miles driven; and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) information.

11-6. The report must always be signed. A standard military signature block should be used. Any required appendix(es) should be attached. A copy of the report should be included with the project folder and the original forwarded to the appropriate commander.


11-7. The recon report will typically be longer than the ISVT report. It should contain logistical and technical information. The recon report is broken down into three major sections narrative, graphic, and control cards.


11-8. The narrative section is somewhat similar to the ISVT report. It contains much of the same type of information; however, it will be greatly expanded. Any information that could be used at a later date should be included. The report should be broken down into readily identifiable numbered and titled paragraphs (some of the subparagraphs may be deleted if they serve no purpose) as follows:

Paragraph 1. References. The project directive or order number. The ISVT report should be listed if available.

Paragraph 2. Personnel. The name, rank or position title, unit, and telephone number (both home station and remote site) of all personnel involved in the recon.

Paragraph 3. Key Personnel Contacts. The name, rank or position title, address, and telephone number of all personnel, offices, or agencies that were contacted during the recon (include military message addresses). This paragraph is extremely important for rights of way and access to private lands. Agreements made with landowners and/or property custodians should be listed, and a written permission document should be prepared and signed and a copy included as the last annex of the ISVT report.

Paragraph 4. Objective. The objective of the recon. It should be very specific and should include the nature of the recon (for example, triangulation, traverse, level, or plane table).

Paragraph 5. Discussion. A discussion of the project. This paragraph will typically be the longest and will normally be broken down into subparagraphs. All details must be listed and specified. The following subparagraphs should be included:

Paragraph 6. Recommendations. Any recommendations (this paragraph will be lengthy and should be very detailed). It should include recommendations that are based on sound technical principles that are within the capabilities of the unit. Include detailed information about the following:

Paragraph 7. Funding. Funds expended during the recon. Also include information such as the fund citation and source.

Paragraph 8. Work Hours. The work hours expended (broken down by rank and activity performed [for example, POC meetings, POL and maintenance support, administrative requirements, and field recon]). This information will be helpful for planning and estimating similar future projects.

Paragraph 9. Equipment. A list of all the equipment used to conduct the recon. Include the types of vehicles, the vehicles' identification numbers, the miles driven, POL data, and any other equipment actually used by the recon party.


11-9. This section will usually take the form of overlays and/or maps. Use standard topographic and military symbols (as listed in FMs 21-31 and 101-5-1) when annotating overlays and maps. At a minimum, an overlay should contain the following information:


11-10. This section should be a compilation of DA Forms 1958 and 1959 that were completed during the recon. The control cards must be complete, accurate, formatted correctly, and of high enough quality to permit them to be reproduced with minimal expenditure of time and labor.


11-11. Progress reports are generally less formal than the other types of reports but are just as important. They are designed to keep the commander informed of progress. The time interval for progress reports will be established by the commander and included in the project directive. Normally, progress reports will be submitted weekly and, in some cases, daily verbal reports may be required. Progress reports may not be required for small projects.


11-12. A verbal report follows the same identical format as a written progress report. The sender and the receiver should have a copy of the premade format to follow. Only those lines that are applicable are filled in. The field copy is included in the project file for use in compiling a written weekly or end-of-project report.


11-13. A written progress report normally includes a cover form and a data sheet. The data sheet is a fill-in-the-blank form. Those areas not applicable are left blank. All information must be as accurate as possible. The tendency to hold back production levels cannot be tolerated. Annex D of the sample survey SOP is a recommended guide for determining progress. A copy of this report is forwarded to the parent unit and a copy is included in the project file. These reports are essential for the compilation of the final project report.


11-14. An end-of-project report is used to inform the commander and the customer that the project has been completed. The results of the project will generally be listed on DA Form 1962. Copies of DA Form 1959, map overlays, and other graphics may be included. Annex E of the sample survey SOP shows the format for an end-of-project report. The report should be broken down into readily identifiable numbered and titled paragraphs, as follows:

Paragraph 1. References. A complete listing of all orders, letters, project directives, and memorandums for record (MFRs) concerning the project. Normally, the other reports will not be listed as references.

Paragraph 2. Personnel. The name and rank of all personnel participating in the project. The inclusive dates of their involvement should also be listed. This paragraph can be further broken down as follows:

Paragraph 3. Objective. The specific mission statement.

Paragraph 4. Discussion. A detailed discussion of exactly what transpired during the conduct of the project. Specific dates and details should be included. The milestone objectives outlined in the recon report should be discussed. Indicate whether the project was kept on schedule, or fully explain the reasons for falling behind schedule.

Paragraph 5. Problem Areas. Specific problem areas and the solutions to the problems. This information becomes a historical record to be used for future planning purposes. Technical information will be included in the narrative and graphic sections of the recon report.

Paragraph 6. Funding. All fund citations and a total of all funds expended. The ISVT and recon reports are the sources for this information. Copies of all travel vouchers and other expenses should be included.

Paragraph 7. Work Hours. The total number of expended work hours (broken down by rank). A composite of all progress reports should be included.

Paragraph 8. Conclusions and Recommendations. Specific conclusions and recommendations.


11-15. An incident report should be submitted any time there is an unusual occurrence that could have an impact on the project. Incidents such as vehicular accidents, equipment damage, and personnel injuries must be reported. There is no set format for an incident report. The initial report can be verbal or written.


11-16. The parent unit should be notified as soon as possible after the incident. This should be accomplished using a telephone, a radio, or an electronic message. The verbal report may be fragmentary because all the information may not be available or verified. The notification should answer the following questions:


11-17. In all cases, a written report is prepared and forwarded to the parent unit with copies going to the local POC (if appropriate) and in the project file. The written report will address the same questions as the verbal notification, but the significant difference will be the amount of detail. The written report should contain all details concerning the incident and must include written statements from any or all witnesses to the incident. In the case of accidents or equipment damage, preventive measures to preclude recurrence should be included. A copy of the written report should be included in the project file and, if significant, the incident should be listed within the problem areas of the end-of-project report.


11-18. The reports should be submitted through the project's operations officer for technical evaluation and completion. The reports are then forwarded to the company commander and the battalion S3 for information or approval. Copies of the reports should be kept in the project files for documentation (audit trail) and historical purposes.



11-19. In addition to reports, briefings are used to update commanders and other key visitors on the project's status. There are two general briefing categories impromptu and deliberate.


11-20. The impromptu briefing is the simplest and yet the most difficult type of briefing. It is simple because it requires a minimum of support facilities and materials; however, it is also difficult because a thorough knowledge of all aspects of the project is absolutely essential, but the preparation time is usually very short. The scenario for an impromptu briefing is very simple. The commander or other visiting official arrives for a site visitation and requests an update. The OIC, the NCOIC, or another designated individual is expected to bring this person up to date on the project's status. The project progress reports are an invaluable source of information. Additionally, up-to-date maps of the project should be kept solely for the purpose of briefings. Other charts and statistical data that can be updated quickly are also advisable. The success of the briefing will depend primarily on the professionalism and knowledge of the briefer. The importance of the briefing cannot be overemphasized. An impressive impromptu briefing earns respect of those being briefed and builds their confidence that the survey team can accomplish its missions.


11-21. There are several types of deliberate briefings. They include information, decision, mission, and staff briefings.


11-22. An information briefing is designed to inform the listener. The information briefing deals primarily with facts. It includes a brief introduction to define the subject and to orient the listener. It does not include conclusions or recommendations. Examples of when an information briefing might be appropriate are 


11-23. A decision briefing is designed to obtain a decision (or an answer to a problem). In the higher HQ, the decision briefing is used for most matters requiring command decisions, including tactical matters. In the division HQ and below, a more informal type of the decision briefing is used. At the outset, the briefer must state that the object of the briefing is to secure a decision. At the conclusion, if no decision has been given, the briefer must ask for one. The briefer should be certain of understanding the decision thoroughly. If uncertain, the briefer must ask for clarification. The decision briefing may be compared to an oral staff study, in that it contains each of the major elements of a staff study. The following steps are the most logical sequence of events for a decision briefing:

Step 1. Isolate, define, and state the issue. Explain that the purpose of the briefing is to secure a decision. Include background information to show what led to the situation and why a decision is necessary.

Step 2. State any assumptions. Assumptions must be both reasonable and supportable.

Step 3. Present the facts bearing on the situation. This portion of the briefing is essentially the same as that for an information briefing, and the same rules generally apply to both types of briefings. All the important facts should be stated objectively, accurately, and fully. Facts that have a direct bearing on the problem and are already known to the person being briefed should be reviewed. Since this briefing should result in a decision, the listener is reminded of all the pertinent facts directly related to the problem. New facts, which are unknown to the person being briefed, should be limited to those that have a direct bearing on, or might influence, the decision.

Step 4.Discuss possible courses of action. The courses of action are stated and briefly analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of each course are pointed out and compared in the discussion paragraph of the staff study. Indicate possible results of each course of action and any potential dangers involved.

Step 5.State the conclusion. State the degree of acceptance or the order of merit of each course of action.

Step 6. Make a recommendation. State the recommendation so that it may be used as a decision on the commander's approval. On presenting the recommendation, be prepared to discuss the coordination involved. Following the briefing, if the chief of staff is not present, inform the staff secretary, executive officer, or other appropriate administrative assistant of the commander's decision.


11-24. A mission briefing is used under operational conditions to impart information, to give specific instructions, or to instill an appreciation of a mission. In an operational situation or when the mission is of a critical nature, it may become necessary to provide individuals or smaller units with more data than was provided in the orders. A mission briefing reinforces orders, provides more requirements and instructions for the individuals, and provides an explanation of the significance of their role. This type of briefing is presented with care to ensure that it does not cause confusion or conflict with orders. Depending on the nature of the mission or the level of the HQ, a mission briefing is usually conducted by one officer, who may be the commander, an assistant, a staff officer, or a special representative.


11-25. A staff briefing is used to secure a coordinated or unified effort. This may involve the exchange of information, the announcement of decisions within a command, the issuance of directives, or the presentation of guidance. To accomplish these results, a staff briefing may include characteristics of an information, a decision, a mission, or any combination of these briefings.


11-26. Attendance at a staff briefing varies with the size of the HQ, the type of operation being conducted, and the personal desires of the commander. Generally, the commander, the deputy or executive officer, the chief of staff, the administrative assistant, and the senior representative of each coordinating- and special-staff section will attend. Representatives from major subordinate commands may also be present.


11-27. In garrison, staff briefings are normally scheduled periodically. Unscheduled staff briefings are called as the need arises. In HQ of larger units, staff briefings are often held on a regularly scheduled basis. In combat, staff briefings are held when required by the situation; however, at corps and higher levels, staff briefings normally are regularly scheduled events. Staff briefings are valuable in operational situations because full appreciation of the situation by the commander and staff is difficult to achieve by other means.


11-28. Matters discussed at staff briefings will vary. At lower levels, topics of immediate concern to the unit and its operations are discussed, while at higher levels the briefing may deal more with matters of policy. In field or combat operations, tactical matters will predominate. When staff briefings are held on a regularly scheduled basis, the substance of each staff officer's presentation may be for updating material previously presented.


11-29. The chief of staff usually presides over the staff briefing, calling staff representatives to present matters that interest those present or that require coordinated staff action. Each staff officer must be prepared to brief on their area of responsibility.

Staff Estimates

11-30. The presentation of staff estimates culminating in a commander's decision to adopt a specific course of action is a form of staff briefing used in the combat HQ. Staff officers involved in this type of briefing should follow the general pattern prescribed for the staff estimate being presented.


11-31. There are four steps for executing a briefing assignment analyze the situation, structure the briefing, deliver the briefing, and follow up.

NOTE: All junior-grade NCOs should have received some formalized speech training as part of their NCO professional development. However, this training is not always adequate. Most installations have courses available such as instructor training or public speaking. These are generally short courses that will aid an NCO in presenting briefings.


11-32. The situation analysis includes analyzing the audience and the occasion, determining the purpose, allocating time, reviewing the facilities, and scheduling the preparatory effort.


11-33. The structure of a briefing will vary with the type and purpose. The analysis provides the basis for this determination. When the briefing is to be informational, it will consist of such things as assembling information, selecting key points, deciding how to present the key points, and selecting visual aids. When the briefing is to obtain a decision, the briefer must state the problem as well as the facts and must isolate and analyze the courses of action, reach conclusions, make recommendations, and obtain an understandable decision. Follow these steps when structuring a briefing:

Step 1. Collect material.

Step 2. Know the subject thoroughly.

Step 3.Isolate the key points.

Step 4. Arrange the key points in logical order.

Step 5. Provide supporting data to substantiate the validity of key points.

Step 6. Select visual aids.

Step 7. Establish the wording.

Step 8.Rehearse in detail.


11-34. The success of the briefing depends greatly on the manner of presentation. A confident, relaxed, clearly enunciated, and forceful delivery that is obviously based on a full knowledge of the subject helps convince the audience. Maintain a relaxed but military bearing and deliver a briefing that is concise, objective, and accurate. Be aware of the following:


11-35. Prepare an MFR when the briefing is over. The MFR should be brief, but it should record the subject, date, time, and place of the briefing as well as the rank, name, and position of those present. The substance of the briefing may be recorded in a concise form or it may be omitted. Recommendations and their approval, disapproval, or approval (with modifications) are recorded. Any instructions or directed action resulting from the briefing and the individual who is to take action are also recorded. When there is doubt as to the intent of the decision maker, a draft of the MFR is submitted to that individual for correction before it is prepared in final form. The MFR is distributed to staff sections or agencies that must take action on the decision or instructions contained in it or whose operations or plans may be influenced. A copy should be included in the project file.



11-36. Figures 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, 11-4, 11-5, 11-6, 11-7, 11-8, and 11-9 are designed to serve as a sample SOP for topographic-survey operations. This SOP is intended as a guide, and compliance with these procedures may be the difference between an exemplary survey project and a very intensive learning experience for a survey crew. One SOP cannot cover the diverse survey projects encountered worldwide, so adjustment will need to be made when required.

11-37. This sample SOP is designed for topographic-survey operations and includes the following sample annexes:

11-38. This sample SOP is to be used as a guide for completing a survey SOP and the supporting annexes. Refer to current correspondence guidance for proper preparation and formatting of these documents.

11-39. This SOP is important for the following reasons:


Figure 11-1. Sample Survey SOP


Engineer Company/Section/Squad
Engineer Battalion (Topographic) (Airborne)


SUBJECT: Units' Survey-Operations SOP


a. This SOP is designed to clarify and expedite mission accomplishment (specifically survey projects) so that projects are completed on time and meet specifications at a minimum cost.

b. The tasks identified herein must be accomplished. This SOP serves as a flowchart, with explanations of activities, and includes formats and information flow for reports. This SOP should be used as a checklist and a management-control document for all levels of operation (company, section, and squad).

2. PROJECT REQUEST AND S3 TASKING. No project will be undertaken unless directed by the engineer battalion operations officer. All projects must be coordinated with the S3, regardless of the source of the request (for example, NIMA, MACOMs, installation and community staff elements, or allied nations).

3. OPERATIONS-SECTION PROJECT EVALUATION. The company operations section must evaluate the project directive and advise the company commander in the following areas:

a. Resources. Identify the manpower and equipment requirements to complete the project as specified. Identify available manpower and equipment.

b. Appropriateness. Identify if the project requires MOS 82D (surveyor) skills. Identify if the company currently has the expertise required for the project.

c. Scheduling. Identify the project's priority and duration. Identify how the current work schedule will be affected, how annual training requirements will be affected, and if the work can be done in any season.

d. Final product. Identify what the customer really wants and needs. Identify what the company would have to produce.

e. Funding. Identify how the project will be funded. Identify how much money is available and what may be purchased (for example, lodging, rations, office and field materials, POL, repair parts, and equipment rental).

4. RESEARCH AND COORDINATION. The NCOIC will conduct an office recon for the project. This recon will include 

  • Customer contact to determine the exact project requirements and the format of the final product.
  • Research for reference data (such as station trig lists, maps, aerial photographs, and climate data). Data sources may include NIMA, USGS, NGS, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), TEC, and the customer or state, county, and municipal records. When working in another nation, request information from the host nation.

5. WARNING ORDER. The company operations section will issue a warning order to the appropriate platoon based on project priority requirements, existing projects, available resources, and training requirements. The warning order will identify project requirements and the date of execution. The warning order will direct a recon mission and an ISVT report (Annex A) (Figure 11-2). Upon receipt of the warning order, the survey section will begin reporting the project's status weekly to the company operations section.

6. SQUAD ASSIGNMENT. The platoon HQ will select a squad and/or specific personnel for the project. This determination will be based on the availability of personnel and equipment, personnel experience, familiarity with the project area, and required training.

7. ON-SITE RECON. The survey section is responsible for the initial on-site recon. A squad representative will assist with the recon. An ISVT report will be submitted, through the platoon leader to the company commander, with an information copy provided to the commander, engineer battalion (topographic), attention: S3. The report is normally due five working days after the completion of the recon and will be prepared by the squad assigned to the platoon HQ. The company commander will advise the battalion commander on the appropriateness of the project.

NOTE: If no further site recon occurs between the initial on-site recon and the arrival of the advance party, the most likely squad leader MUST participate in the initial on-site recon. If this recon is for support, it must be documented. If this recon is only to determine acceptance of the project, another recon will be required to determine the survey plan and to confirm the support.

8. OPORD. The company operations section will prepare and issue a TECHOPORD (Annex B) (Figure 11-5) in the standard military five-paragraph format. The TECHOPORD will direct the platoon to perform the survey mission. The company operations section will issue all maps, trig lists, and overlays (if not previously issued) to the survey section.

9. FRAGO. The platoon HQ will issue a FRAGO (Annex C) (Figure 11-6) to the assigned squad instructing them to perform the survey mission. The FRAGO will contain all the information required by the squad leader to complete the project.

10. DETAILED RESEARCH AND COORDINATION. The squad leader is responsible for the detailed examination of applicable trig lists, past project reports for the area, maps, deeds, and any other pertinent source data. The platoon HQ and the SIC may be tasked to assist in assembling this information. Using this information and any on-site-recon information, the squad leader will design the project. Weekly percentage-of-project-completion progress reports (Annex D) (Figure 11-7) will be submitted through the platoon HQ to the company operations section from this point until project completion. The squad leader will choose the method to meet project specifications and time requirements and will prepare a written survey plan, to include drawings and overlays of survey schemes, as information permits. This plan will reflect the squad leader's best estimate of survey design. If a comprehensive survey recon has not been accomplished, the survey plan will not be final. The final plan will be designed on-site as part of the advance party's tasking. Any changes from the original plan will be submitted to the platoon HQ verbally and in writing, if so instructed. The project plan will be written in the format of a project briefing.

11. CREW AND EQUIPMENT PREPARATION. The squad leader selects personnel and equipment based on job requirements. The personnel are selected based on their personal experience, expertise, and training. The crew begins immediately to train on specific skills needed for the project. The squad leader will identify specific items of equipment to be used on the job and will ensure operational readiness, to include performing required maintenance. The squad leader will identify and order all required supplies for the project.

12. PROJECT BRIEFING. The squad leader will brief the platoon leader and the company commander on the project. At a minimum, the briefing will cover the following items:

a. Mission. Identify the final product and the customer.

b. Concept of operation. Identify how the squad will complete the project. Discuss the following items:

(1) Design. Identify what methods (for example, triangulation, traverse, or level) will be used. Identify where the lines of survey will be run. Use a map to show the existing control and the proposed lines of survey.

(2) Time estimate. Show a proposed work-hour estimate and indicate the departure and return dates.

(3) Cost estimate. Categorize the estimated cost (for example, POL, lodging, per diem, and contingency) and show the total cost.

(4) Travel. Identify the methods of travel and the amount of travel time.

c. Personnel and equipment requirements. Identify what personnel (skills and number) are required, and provide a by-name listing. Identify what major items of equipment are necessary and how many items are required.

d. Service support. Identify the requirements for the following:

  • Lodging.
  • Mess.
  • Medical.
  • Equipment maintenance.
  • Materials and supplies.
  • POL.
  • Transportation.

e. Command and signal. Identify the reporting procedures.

f. Training. Identify the specific MOS skills and ARTEP/MTP tasks that are required by the project. Identify what training is necessary to prepare the squad for project execution.

13. TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) PREPARATION. The squad will usually have 14 calendar days to prepare for a TDY project. The squad leader is responsible for scheduling and executing preparations for the squad members. The platoon leader and the first sergeant (1SG) are responsible for assisting in these preparations. The following areas should be addressed:

a. TDY orders.

(1) The squad leader will prepare a request for orders and forward it to the platoon HQ. This request should include the 

  • Members' name, rank, social security number, and security clearance.
  • Project directive number.
  • Project dates.
  • Modes of transportation.
  • Special considerations (such as authorization for telephone calls, rental vehicles, and extra baggage).

(2) The platoon HQ will review the request, add any necessary information, and forward it to the company operations section. The company operations section is responsible for obtaining the finalized orders and returning copies to the platoon.

b. Barracks personnel. Barracks personnel are responsible for the completion of the following:

  • Securing oversized and valuable items.
  • Inventorying items in their wall lockers (the squad leader and an officer should do the inventory and make a copy for the individual, supply, and inside the locker).
  • Having their wall lockers banded.
  • Turning in their room keys.

c. Health and personnel records. Personnel are responsible for picking up their medical and dental records, rescheduling any pending appointments, and updating their shot records. They are also responsible for updating their military personnel records.

d. Personal gear. Soldiers should pack appropriate items for the project-area climate. For example, nighttime temperatures in a desert can be 30�F lower than peak daytime temperatures. Arrange for safeguarding of privately owned vehicles (POVs) if left behind. Prior coordination may allow POVs to be stored in the transportation motor pool (TMP). If a POV inspection, registration, or insurance renewal will be needed before the members' return, a notarized authorization for proxy is required before leaving.

e. Mail. Mail will not be forwarded unless specifically requested. A statement must be filed with the unit's mail clerk for someone else to pick up the mail in the event that the member does not want it forwarded. A squad member should be designated as the mail handler.

f. Finances. Only personnel with direct deposit are authorized to perform TDY missions away from the installation. After receipt of TDY orders, a pay advance may be drawn. If flying to the project site, TDY orders are used to obtain a transportation request and tickets at the scheduled airline ticket office (SATO). The squad leader will brief the squad on travel-voucher procedures (for example, keep copies of the original orders, travel requests, lodging receipts, official telephone receipts, contingency purchase receipts, and rental receipts).

g. Military drivers' licenses. Personnel must get a license for all squad vehicles and any possible TMP vehicles (for example, pickups or vans) that they will be required to operate. Personnel must take a copy of their military driver's license to the project site.

h. Equipment inventories. Any equipment the squad leaves behind must be inventoried in writing. The inventory must be signed by the master hand-receipt holder or the acting squad leader. All equipment taken to the project site will be inventoried in writing by the squad or team leader. Copies of the hand receipts should remain with the individuals that are signed for the equipment.

i. Military vehicles. Each vehicle must have a thorough technical inspection before departure, must have a complete organization vehicle maintenance (OVM) set, and should be dispatched for the entire length of the project.

j. Briefings. The squad leader will give a project briefing to the squad members. The platoon and/or company HQ will give safety and personal-conduct briefings.

k. Sign out. All personnel will sign out of the battalion with the Adjutant (US Army) (S1) or the staff duty NCO (SDNCO) upon departure. Meal-card holders will turn in their meal cards.

l. Government credit cards. All squad members will obtain a government credit card from the supply officer (US Army) (S4).

m. Instrument calibration. The squad leader will ensure that all adjustments and calibrations for the surveying equipment to be used on the project are completed.

n. Administrative project file. The administrative project file should include the following:

o. GS equipment and supplies. The following GS equipment and supplies should be included:

  • Office supplies.
  • Survey and other support forms.
  • A first-aid kit.
  • Drawing, chart, and printer paper.
  • Calculators, paper, and batteries.
  • Counseling statements.
  • Official mailing envelopes.
  • Weekly-report forms.

p. Reference materials. The following reference materials should be included:

  • Maps and trig lists.
  • Soldier training publications (STPs) and common training task (CTT) manuals.
  • Job books.
  • Survey manuals.
  • The company's survey SOP.
  • TMs and manufacturers' manuals.

q. Training. Training should be completed or rescheduled as necessary. Consider the following training requirements:

  • Annual training requirements (mission), to include weapons qualification and the Army physical fitness test (APFT).
  • Annual training requirements (personal knowledge), to include CTT packets and scheduled training for the TDY period.
  • Weight-control program.
  • POV training (to include registration and operator's license).
  • Defensive-driving training.
  • Off-duty classes.

r. Family members. Personnel must get a power of attorney (if needed) and make arrangements for nonlicensed dependents (such as commissary, hospital, and shopping privileges).


a. Generally, the squad leader and one or two squad members will depart first. The assistant squad leader will complete the final administrative preparations with the remaining squad members.

b. The squad leader will inspect and sign for quarters and administrative space at the project site. Telephonic communications with the company at the home site should be established upon arrival and equipment should be secured. If communication with the home site is required after duty hours, contact will be made with platoon HQ personnel at home or, as a last resort, with the SDNCO.

c. All POCs from the initial recon should be contacted. Additionally, the military or local police should be informed of mission requirements, AOs, vehicle types, and bumper/license numbers.

d. Further detailed recon/station recovery and verification should begin immediately and the final project design completed. Coordinate access for keys, escorts, and range-control data from local surveyors or the local courthouse. A successful advance party will allow the squad to begin work as soon as they arrive at the project site.


a. The squad leader or the assistant squad leader will conduct the movement to the project. All vehicles will move as a group under the NCOIC's control. If the project site is 450 miles or less away, the movement time will be one day. At distances greater than 450 miles, the movement rate will be approximately 300 miles per day. All overnight lodging will be at one location if possible, and all equipment will be secured.

b. Obtain fuel at service stations that accept government credit cards. Use self-service pumps when possible.

c. Each day, the platoon HQ or the SDNCO will be given the location and telephone number of the overnight lodging. They will also be notified upon arrival at the project site.

d. If movement is by commercial air, ensure that all baggage claim checks are safeguarded until all equipment is received at the final destination. If movement is by military aircraft, make every attempt to move the equipment with the personnel. If equipment must be moved independently, the equipment will be submitted with a "priority, no-bump" statement. At least one person will observe the physical loading of the survey equipment onto the aircraft. Copies of all movement documents will be retained until the equipment is received after movement. At a minimum, obtain and document the 

  • Type and model of the aircraft.
  • Tail number of the aircraft.
  • Mission number.
  • Number of the transportation-control-and-movement document (TCMD).
  • Date and time of departure.
  • Route of the aircraft (including any intermediate stops before the survey equipment is to be unloaded).


a. Fieldwork. The squad leader is responsible for daily checks of fieldwork and computations. All recordings and computations should be in black ink, double-checked, and initialed to indicate that the checks have been performed.

b. Maintenance. Daily maintenance on each vehicle and weekly preventive-maintenance checks and services (PMCS) on all survey equipment should be performed. Report immediately to platoon HQ each time the equipment-readiness status changes. All accidents must be reported to the company commander within 24 hours. Accident reports and statements from all concerned parties will be prepared immediately and forwarded to the company commander.

c. Safety. All guidelines set forth in the unit's safety SOP must be followed.

d. Inventories. Those items used in the field survey and all sensitive items of equipment (for example, survey instruments, binoculars, compasses, and OVM) must be inventoried daily. Inventory weekly all hand-receipted equipment, and report any damaged, lost, or inoperational equipment to the platoon HQ within 24 hours.

e. Training. The squad leader will determine the type and schedule of physical training. The physical training should meet current minimum standards. CTT and soldier's manuals (SMs) should be taken to the project because training in these skills can be conducted during inclement weather.

f. Progress reports. Weekly progress reports will be submitted to the platoon HQ. The format shown at Annex D should be used to record vehicle mileage, fuel used, work hours expended, and the percent of the project completed.

g. Daily log. The squad leader will keep a written daily log of the progress, activities, and problems that relate directly to the mission. All other occurrences (such as personnel insubordinate behavior) will be recorded. The squad leader will be prepared at all times to present an informal progress briefing to any visitors or inspectors.


a. The squad is responsible for conducting an on-site edit during the last phase of the project (if possible). This edit will include, but is not limited to, checking

  • Computations. Math computations and procedures must be done correctly (to include all headings and signatures).
  • Field sheets/books. Field notes should be checked and have headings.
  • Station descriptions. Station descriptions must include a completed sketch, appropriate reference features, and field-note checks. Grammar and paragraph sequence should be checked.
  • Airfield drawings. Airfield drawings must be complete, accurately plotted, and field checked.

b. All corrections and notations made by edit personnel will be in red ink. All pages checked will include the editor's initials in red ink. Notes and lists should be free of any glaring or repetitive errors.


a. After all field observations and computations are completed, the squad will clear the project site and return to the home installation. The squad leader will ensure that

  • Borrowed equipment is turned in.
  • The lodging area is cleaned.
  • Equipment is inventoried.
  • Preoperational vehicle checks are conducted.
  • All outstanding bills are paid.
  • All vehicles are properly dispatched.

b. The customer will not be provided a copy of the unedited data unless so directed by the platoon/company HQ. When required to leave a copy with the customer, ensure that a statement is attached indicating that the data provided is preliminary and unadjusted.

c. Movement from the project will be conducted the same as movement to the project. The platoon HQ will be contacted before departure from the project site.

19. SQUAD RECOVERY. Upon return to the home installation, the following will be accomplished:

  • A platoon representative will meet the returning squad with any instructions.
  • Members will sign in at the S1 or the SDNCO.
  • Members will sign for keys and inventory their wall lockers.
  • Vehicles will be topped off, cleaned, technically inspected, and secured at TMP.
  • TOE equipment will be cleaned, inventoried, inspected, and secured. Any required maintenance will be scheduled.
  • Finance vouchers will be completed, inspected at the platoon HQ, and filed with the FAO for payment.
  • The platoon HQ will be briefed on the project's status.
  • Each person's final finance voucher will be forwarded through the platoon HQ to the company operations section when received.
  • Time for personal affairs and missed training will be scheduled.

20. EDIT AT HQ. Upon return from the project, the squad leader will submit a completed survey packet to the platoon HQ. The platoon HQ will check all final computations, drafting, and recovery-card preparation. An end-of-project report (Annex E) (Figure 11-9) will be submitted by the squad leader to the platoon HQ within three working days after the survey project is completed. A copy of the report should be included in the survey packet. The survey packet should contain (in the following order) this information:

  • The end-of-project report.
  • A detailed narrative (packet introduction) explaining the contents of the packet.
  • A sketch or an overlay of all the work done.
  • An index.
  • Tabulated data and DA Forms 1959.
  • Check-angle, GPS, distance, level, and starting-inverse computations.
  • All level lines, traverses, and GPS data in sequence (main-control extension, connecting control, and side or loop extensions).
    • Level lines will contain (in order) a sketch of the level line, a DA Form 1942, and field notes.
    • Traverses will contain (in order) a sketch of the traverse, final position computations (DA Forms 1923 and 1940<), the final inverse position, elevation computations, abstracts, distance-measurement/reduction field sheets, horizontal-direction field notes, vertical-angle/ZD field notes, and intersection/side-shot notes.
    • GPS data will contain a sketch of the GPS positions, printed position computations and datum transformations, and backup disks containing all recorded data.


a. The platoon will review the end-of-project report and make a file of all pertinent records, vouchers, forms, reports, and copies of the final product. The platoon will make appropriate award recommendations and ensure that all members' finance transactions (for example, meal cards, separate rations, and basic allowance for quarters [BAQ]) are followed through to completion.

b. Upon completion of the platoon review, a first endorsement to the end-of-project report will be prepared by the platoon and forwarded with the report and final project packet to the company operations section. The endorsement will identify any additional work hours expended during the edit and review, inspection results, and any other pertinent data.

22. COMPANY OPERATIONS-SECTION FINAL REVIEW. The company operations section will review the final project packet for accuracy and completeness. A file copy will be made and any pertinent data will be stored in the SIC. The project packet will be forwarded (with a letter of transmittal) to the battalion S3. Additionally, a second endorsement to the end-of-project report will be prepared and forwarded to the battalion S3. This endorsement will contain any additional work hours expended during the edit and review and inspection and all final project data. Copies of the end-of-project report (with all endorsements and enclosures) will be forwarded to the platoon HQ and the battalion S3 for information and filing. A file copy will also be kept in the company operations section.



Figure 11-2. Sample Annex A (ISVT Report)


Engineer Company
Engineer Battalion (Topography) (Army)
Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip

AFFA-TA-S                                                                                                                                   03 February XXXX

Engineer Company
Attention: Operations
Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip

Reference: Project directive number, date, FAA Airfield Obstruction Survey.

SUBJECT: ISVT Report (Fort Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield [AAF], Texas, 28 - 31 January XXXX)


a. List all POCs at the project site.

b. List any other POCs involved with the project.


a. Determine the scope of the work to be performed.

b. Make a thorough recon of the areas to be surveyed. Locate existing survey control.

c. Complete a liaison for all types of support requirements ranging from lodging to vehicle maintenance.

3. MISSION. The Survey Section, 99th Engineer Company, will dispatch a survey team of eight members to Fort Bliss, Texas, on or about 19 February XXXX, after receipt of project funding. They will conduct a complete survey of all NAVAIDs and airfield obstructions according to specifications established by the US Army Air Traffic Control (ATC) Activity, Aeronautical Services Agency, Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia, 22304-5050. If time and funding permit, the team will revalidate the aging compass rose located on Biggs AAF.


a. Location. Biggs AAF is located adjacent to Fort Bliss, Texas, and El Paso International Airport.

b. Environmental factors. The terrain is basically flat, with the airfield being located on a high desert plateau. The Franklin Mountains are located about 4 miles west of the airfield, and the Hueco Mountains are located about 15 miles to the east. Vegetation is sparse and is limited to scrub brush. Normal daily temperatures for this time of year are 40�F to 50�F during the day and 20�F to 30�F at night. Precipitation is minimal throughout the year.

c. Medical facilities. Emergency medical treatment is available 24 hours a day at the William Beaumont Army Medical Center. Routine treatment may be accomplished at the consolidated troop medical clinic located in Building 2496. Dental care will be provided (for emergencies only) at the dental clinic located in Building 2699.

d. Shopping facilities. Complete commissary and post exchange (PX) facilities are available on Fort Bliss. Additionally, small branch exchanges are located throughout the post and on Biggs AAF. Both facilities accept checks, and the PX will cash personal checks for up to $100 per day. Additionally, the PX will accept certain specified credit cards.

e. Vehicle maintenance. Fort Bliss TMP is unable to support our vehicle requirements. We will rent two sedans and one pickup truck from the Bogus Rental Car Company, El Paso, Texas. Fuel will be procured through TMP with DPW reimbursing TMP for the fuel used.

f. Lodging and office space. As of this date, the only lodging available on Fort Bliss is through the bachelor enlisted quarters (BEQ). The lodging office is located in Building 504A. Office and equipment-storage space is available on Biggs AAF. The POC is the airfield operations office.

g. Dining facilities. The use of government mess is adverse to the timely completion of the mission on Fort Bliss. Access to the project site is controlled by the airfield operations office, and the hours of work are adjusted according to flight operations. It would cause undo delay to halt survey operations to meet the scheduled meal times of a dining facility. It is strongly recommended that all personnel be placed on per diem. There are numerous restaurants and fast-food establishments in the Fort Bliss and El Paso area. There is also a food concession next to the PX.

h. Cost estimates. A cost-estimate work sheet is at Enclosure 1 (Figure 11-3) and a cost-estimate memorandum is at Enclosure 2 (Figure 11-4). Cost estimates should include the following:

  • Parameters 
    • Advance party.
    • Remainder of crew.
    • Command visitors.
    • Rental cars.
  • Actual costs 
    • Airfare.
    • Lodging.
    • Per diem.
    • Transportation to, on, and from the project site.
    • Shipment of equipment (identify the shipping company).
    • Contingency fund.
  • Total estimated cost.


6. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION. The project should be accepted by this unit. It will provide training in the following STP/MTP tasks:

a. Task number 051-260-1122 (Set Up Survey Target).

b. Task number xxx-xxx-xxxx (task title).



                                                                                                                                 JOHN DOE
                                                                                                                                 Sergeant First Class (SFC), US Army
                                                                                                                                 Survey-Section NCOIC





Figure 11-3. Sample Enclosure 1 to Annex A (Cost-Estimate Work Sheet)


Figure 11-4. Sample Enclosure 2 to Annex A (Cost-Estimate Memorandum)


Engineer Company
Engineer Battalion (Topographic)
Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip

(office symbol)                                                                                                                                  31 January XXXX

United States Army Air-Defense Center and Fort Bliss (USAADCENFB)
Attention: ATZC-DPW-P
Fort Bliss, Texas 79916-6104


SUBJECT: Biggs AAF Survey Cost Estimate

1. After performing a thorough recon for this project, I estimate the cost for this project to be $51,000.00. This cost estimate reflects the fact that no vehicle support or free lodging are available from Fort Bliss.

2. This cost estimate does not reflect the amount that DPW will need to reimburse the Fort Bliss TMP for about 200 gallons of gas. This fuel will be needed for use by the three rental vehicles to be used on this project.

3. A funding request for the amount of the cost estimate should be prepared and forwarded to: Commander, Engineer Battalion (Topographic), Attention: AFFA-TA-PCS, Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip. Request this action be expedited to allow the project to begin on 19 February XXXX.



                                                                                                                                 JOHN DOE
                                                                                                                                 SFC, US Army
                                                                                                                                 Survey-Section NCOIC



Figure 11-5. Sample Annex B (TECHOPORD)

Engineer Battalion (Topographic)
Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip


a. Letter, dated 17 May XXXX, SUBJECT: Engineering Surveys of AAFs

b. Letter, dated 29 May XXXX, SUBJECT: Engineering Surveys of AAFs

Time zone used throughout this order: ROMEO



a. Enemy forces. None.

b. Friendly forces. DPW, Fort Bliss, Texas, Engineer Battalion (Topographic) (Airborne) with subordinate units (HHC and Engineer Company [Topographic]).

c. Attachments and detachments. None.

2. MISSION. The engineer company (topographic) will perform a NAVAID/obstruction survey of Biggs AAF, which is adjacent to Fort Bliss, Texas.


a. Concept of operation. The engineer company (topographic) will coordinate, schedule, and perform survey operations to accomplish the above mission not later than 30 April XXXX. The S3 will monitor project progress and coordinate external requirements upon request.

b. Coordinating instructions. Direct coordination with the following POC is authorized: First Lieutenant (1LT) Gibson, Master Planners Office, DPW, Fort Bliss, Texas, 555-555-5555.


a. Unit equipment and supplies will be used. Rental vehicles are authorized if economically feasible.

b. Support request(s) will be submitted to this HQ, Attention: AFFA-TA-OP, as needed.


a. Command. Refer to the battalion's SOP and complete the following reports.

(1) Submit a recon report within 30 days of receipt of this OPORD to the S3.

(2) Report the project's status weekly to the S3 not later than 1200 hours each Friday.

(3) Submit an end-of-project report to the S3 within 15 days after completion of the project.

b. Signal. None.



                                                                                                                                 WILLIAM SMITH
                                                                                                                                 Lieutenant Colonel (LTC), Engineer (EN)


Figure 11-6. Sample Annex C (FRAGO)

FRAGO # 99-2009-1


a. Technical Operations Work Order # 99-2009

b. FM 3-34.331

c. STP 5-82D14-SM-Trainer's Guide (TG), Task # 051-260-XXXX

Time Zone Used Throughout the Order: ROMEO



a. Friendly forces. Engineer battalion (topographic).

b. Enemy forces. None.

c. Assumptions. This unit may be tasked to perform high-order survey work in the near future. Personnel should become familiar with the computations associated with this type of work.

2. MISSION. Each squad within the survey section, engineer company, has been tasked to compute the geodetic azimuth from the north and the geodetic distance for each set of known coordinates to be used during the survey.


a. Concept of operations.

(1) Transcribe the positions for each set of known coordinates onto DA Form 1923.

(2) Compute the geodetic azimuth from the north and the geodetic distance for each set of coordinates.

(3) Compute the distance to 0.001 meter and the azimuth to 0.01".

(4) Comply with third-order, Class I traverse specifications.

(5) Maximize the use of personnel that are unfamiliar with this computation for training purposes.

(6) Submit progress reports (to include the work hours expended and a by-name list of the personnel working on computations) by 1100 hours each Friday until the completion of the project.

(7) Submit the completed data to the survey-section NCOIC by the close of business 27 February XXXX.

b. Coordinating instructions. Calculators and reference materials are available from SFC Doe. All technical questions/problems should be directed to SFC Doe.

4. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS. The only available resources are those contained within the survey section.


a. Command. Squad leaders are responsible to ensure that all required data and reports reach the survey-section NCOIC as required.

b. Signal. None.

                                                                                                                                 JOHN DOE
                                                                                                                                 SFC, US Army
                                                                                                                                 Survey-Section NCOIC


Figure 11-7. Sample Annex D (Percentage-of-Project-Completion Report)

                                                                                                                                  26 February XXXX


FROM Commander, Engineer Company (Topographic), Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip


SUBJECT: FA-TA-S Survey Project, Percentage of Completion

1. To standardize company operating procedures, projects will be reported using a survey-project timeline that lists the percentage of completion for each project task.

2. The project's status is due to the company operations section each Friday by 1000 hours. Request immediate attention be given to this suspense.

3. A sample survey-project timeline is enclosed.

4. The field-survey percentage-of-project-completion timeline is broken down for each project task and is reported as follows:

  • Traverse for extension of control.
  • Level line for control extension or cross sections/profiles.
  • GPS point positioning.
  • Airfield obstructions or NAVAIDs.
  • Drafting.



                                                                                                                                 MARY DOE
                                                                                                                                 Captain (CPT), EN





Figure11-8. Sample Survey-Project Timeline


Figure 11-9. Sample Annex E (End-of-Project Report)


Engineer Company (Topographic)
Engineer Battalion (Topographic)
Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip

AFFA-TA-X                                                                                                                                  18 April XXXX

THRU Commander, Engineer Company (Topographic), Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip

TO Commander, Engineer Battalion (Topographic), Fort Anywhere, State, and Zip



a. Letter, dated 29 September XXXX, Topographic Survey Requirements (Enclosure 1)

b. Letter, dated 10 November XXXX, Topographic Support, Project Directive #2-84 (Enclosure 2)

c. OPORD, Engineer Battalion (Topographic), dated 30 November XXXX, OPORD 99-148 (Enclosure 3)

d. Letter, dated 4 October XXXX, Preliminary-Recon Trip Report (Enclosure 4)

e. Letter, dated 22 December XXXX, Recon Trip Report (Enclosure 5)

f. Letter, dated 24 February XXXX, Inspection Trip Report (Enclosure 6)

g. Letter, dated 12 March XXXX, Inspection Trip Report (Enclosure 7)


SUBJECT: End-of-Project Report (New Cumberland Army Depot [NCAD], Pennsylvania, 19 January - 2 April XXXX)


a. Inspectors.

SFC John Doe, Survey-Section NCOIC, 2 February

1SG John Smith, 16 - 17 February

b. Field crew.

Staff Sergeant (SSG) John Lopez, Squad Leader, 19 January - 2 April

Sergeant (SGT) John Evans, Computer, 19 January - 2 April

Private First Class (PFC) John Payne, Computer/Drafting, 19 January - 2 April

Specialist (SPC) John Green, Field-Crew Chief, 19 January - 2 April

SPC John Black, Surveyor, 19 January - 2 April

PFC John Parker, Surveyor, 19 January - 2 April

PFC John Kramer, Surveyor, 19 January - 2 April

PFC John Simpson, Surveyor, 2 February - 2 April

PFC John Gonzalez, Surveyor, 19 January - 5 February



a. The original requirements for the project were

  • To perform a verification survey of the entire boundary. The missing corners were to be monumented by DPW, facilities engineering division (FED).
  • To apply third-order elevations on the boundary monuments.
  • To develop topographic maps of the two areas where Buildings 87 and 92 would be relocated.

b. After the final recon was completed, the requirements had been changed to 

  • Perform a verification survey of the entire boundary. The missing corners were to be monumented by the survey crew with monuments premade by DPW, FED.
  • Apply third-order elevations on the boundary monuments.
  • Provide a drawing of the base boundary and station descriptions for each corner and BM (the development of topographic maps was no longer necessary).

c. As the project neared its end and the monuments for the boundary corners were still not made, the requirements for elevations on each boundary monument changed to establishing BMs near the boundary corners (for example, nails in headwalls) and on as many boundary monuments as time would permit. All other requirements remained the same as stated above.

3. METHODS. The mission was broken down into five main areas recon, traversing, locating corners and placing monuments, leveling, and computing and drafting.

a. Recon. The recon was conducted about one month in advance of beginning the fieldwork. It consisted mainly of a deed search at the courthouse, requests for additional information from adjoining landowners (for example, the Pennsylvania Turnpike Authority), an on-ground search for existing boundary corners and starting control, and logistical-support arrangements. This phase of the operation resulted in a reciprocal request from the Pennsylvania Turnpike Authority for two copies of the final drawings.

b. Traversing. All traverse work was performed using third-order, Class I procedures. In total, there were seven traverses, one of which was the main-control traverse. It contained 25 stations and was run from Station Alpha (a first-order horizontal-control point) through boundary corners number 4, 5, and 6 and Stations T-4 and T-5 and closed on Station Bravo (a second-order point). This established a common coordinate system for the existing boundary corners. The other traverses were used to place control near the location where the remaining boundary corners should have been. The azimuths were checked and verified by performing astronomic-azimuth observations to third-order specifications at Station Alpha and at Stations T-4 and T-5. The main-control traverse had a position closure of 1:17,000, and the poorest closure obtained on any of the other six traverses was 1:5,000.

c. Locating corners and placing monuments. The lost/destroyed boundary corners were recovered or replaced. Coordinates were computed for all boundary corners using the coordinates established on boundary corners 4, 5, and 6 and the bearings and distances from the deeds. Inverses were computed from the traverse stations nearest the desired corner to that boundary corner. The traverse station was occupied, the computed angle was turned, and the distance was horizontally taped, thus locating the corner in question. This point was then temporarily marked by either a piece of rebar, a railroad spike, or a nail, depending on the type of ground encountered. Plumbing benches were built over the temporary marks, the markers were removed, holes were dug, and the monuments were placed in their proper positions. After the dirt was tamped down and the plumb was checked, concrete collars were poured around the monuments to ensure that they would not move.

d. Leveling. The requirement for third-order elevations was met by running two third-order lines. The first line started on BM 2 and ran around the perimeter of the southern half of the depot to BM 1. This line established 13 BMs, had an error of closure of 0.065 feet, and was 4.8 miles long. The second line started on BM 1 and ran around the perimeter of the northern half of the depot to Station T-4. This line established the elevation on seven points, had an error of closure of 0.003 feet, and was 1.7 miles long.

e. Computing and drafting. Computing for this project was an ongoing endeavor from the time of the final recon until two weeks after the end of the project. This was due to the vast number of deeds for the land surrounding and now comprising the NCAD, and some of the final data was needed on site at the completion of the project. The drafting was accomplished in the last two weeks of the project and consisted of three drawings. Copies of all drawings were provided to the FED and the Pennsylvania Turnpike Authority before departing the NCAD. Station descriptions were an ongoing effort throughout the project.

5. EQUPMENT. Two categories of equipment were used organizational and borrowed.

a. Organizational. The organizational equipment included three M998 vehicles, two theodolites (one military level and one infrared EDME), two Philadelphia rods, two T-2 target sets, one 50-meter tape measure, one 100-foot tape measure, one tape tension handle, one taping-pin set, and one programmable calculator.

b. Borrowed. The following items were borrowed from the NCAD, FED: three FM, hand-held radios; one posthole digger; and one auger truck with operators. On two or three occasions when the vehicles were down, a carryall was borrowed from TMP.

6. ACHEIVEMENTS. Excellent training was gained by all personnel in traverse, leveling, taping, and monument-setting procedures. All personnel gained valuable experience at operating under extreme cold and wet conditions. SGT Evans and PFC Payne received valuable experience in all types of survey computations, to include curve layouts. SPC Green gained experience as a field-crew chief. The FED gained much needed field data that should prove useful any time projects requiring survey data are undertaken by their office. In addition, all personnel assigned to the project and the engineer company (topographic) were awarded a certificate of appreciation from the depot commander.

7. TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES. Most of the technical problems encountered were a direct result of the vast number of deeds involved. Many of those deeds listed magnetic bearings, while others used true bearings. Ordinarily this would have been no problem, but the catch was that out of all the deeds, only two specified what type of bearings they were listing. This left a large jigsaw puzzle with many variables. It became a matter of trial and error until the crew was finally able to get the boundary to close on itself. Another problem encountered was that one of the reference drawings provided by FED had the numbers within a given distance transposed; that is, 1,307 feet was really 1,370 feet. Additional problems were encountered when the only EDME went down and no replacement was available. The problems encountered in this area were due directly to a lack of training in taping procedures. This problem was resolved after about two days of intensive on-site training.

8. ADMINISTRATIVE/OTHER PROBLEM AREAS. The largest single problem encountered was the vehicle-maintenance support. The support that was promised verbally by the NCAD, TMP never developed. It is strongly recommended that a written agreement be established during the recon phase of all future projects. As for the problems encountered with the vehicles (for example, not starting or faulty exhaust systems), it is unclear how they could have gone through a complete maintenance check before departing for the project and still be in such a poor state of repair. The only other real problem encountered was the repeated adverse weather. In total, 13 work days were lost to snow, ice, rain, or fog.

9. SUMMARY. All in all, this was an excellent project. It fulfilled a vast amount of training requirements in a wide variety of skills. Weaknesses in the equipment department became very obvious. These weaknesses included a need for hand-held radios, medium- or long-range EDME, and four-wheel-drive vehicles.




                                                                                                                                 JOHN LOPEZ
                                                                                                                                 SSG, US Army
                                                                                                                                 Squad Leader


Enclosures (not included with this sample)